2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-20 18:31
Military KrAZ was equipped with a six-cylinder diesel engine of 6970 cubic centimeters, with a capacity of up to 205 horsepower. The power unit interacted with a five-mode gearbox and a two-stage transfer case with a center differential that could be switched off. In addition, the design has a pneumatic power steering, a mechanical winch, a cargo platform and a three-seat cab. The vehicle is designed to transport artillery systems and special cargo.
On highways, the military KrAZ is capable of speeds up to 55 km/h when loaded. The machine was equipped with electrical equipment with a power of 24 volts, hydraulic shock absorbers-telescopes. These versions became the basis for heavy engineering vehicles. Bridge devices with a pair of track blocks were mounted on the chassis of the equipment, providing a load capacity of about 60 tons.
The truck-car legend of the USSR became the basis for the creation of river crossings. The length of the structures was 42 meters, with a width of the roadway of 6.5 m. The main tasks in this direction are the assemblyferries, transportation of goods and personnel through water barriers.
Military KrAZ, whose in-line line consisted of several dozen trucks, is equipped with a base for additional equipment. This includes:
- special platform;
- traction winch;
- lifting and unloading mechanisms;
- pontoon and articulated joints.
Transitional sections were processed by floating method (length - 6.7 meters). Completing elements were complexly processed on the territory capable of forming roads with a width of 5.5 meters. The special set included several flat-bottomed boats and watercraft, focused on moving ferries and building bridges. The Korshun, BMD-25 and 2P5 multiple launch rocket systems were mounted on the base chassis. The range of the missile was approaching 55 kilometers.
On the highway, the speed of the military KrAZ reached 55 km/h. If the movement was carried out as part of a heavy road train, the indicator decreased to 40 km / h. The 214 series became the basis for Soviet heavy engineering vehicles with 24 volt electrical equipment.
Other machine features:
- length/width of the object - 10.5/6.5 m;
- capacity - 60 tons;
- appointment - bridge layers;
- additionally - delivery of equipment through water barriers.
KrAZ models in the process of modernization (60s of the last century) were equipped with a four-stroke engine215 horsepower. On analogues after 1966, this figure was 240 "horses". An upgraded version was released in 1977 (B1). It was equipped with a pneumatic drive of the brake system, had a different placement of head light elements and turn indicators on the front fenders.
Onboard versions and truck tractors were adopted. The machines were equipped with a suspension locking device, which served additionally for mounting and controlling an electric manipulator, an excavator, and other special equipment. Since 1967, the 255B1 variant has become the main representative of the family under consideration in the army, which was equipped with an updated gearbox and hydraulic power steering. Another feature is wide-profile tires with a centralized pressure controller.
Military KrAZ calmly overcame fords up to one meter deep and 30-degree slopes. At the same time, the car reached a speed of 70 km / h, could transport a tow hitch weighing up to 30 tons. Modification 255B had a chassis on which upgraded pontoon elements and bridge stackers were mounted. In addition, the following units were operated on the specified base:
- hydraulic cranes;
- single-bucket excavators;
- piling bridge installations;
- diesel hammers;
- capacious tankers.
In the 60s, designers began to developupdated family at the Kremenchug Automobile Plant. Version 250 (6x4) was unified with serial modification, equipped with an all-metal cabin. Since the plant had limited production capacity, the first batch of trucks of this series appeared only in 1978. A year later, the production of the 260 (6x6) line began, which replaced the 255B.
Car carrying capacity was 9 tons, power - 300 horsepower. In the exterior, the transformation of the light elements built into the bumper is noted, as well as the specific configuration of the front fenders. The YaMZ-238L type turbine motor, aggregated with a four-mode gearbox, a synchronizer and a demulsified gearbox, acted as a power unit.
Army trucks of this type should have had fantastic parameters. For example, start from a place almost at the speed of a bullet, ensuring combat readiness in a matter of seconds. The fact is that the machine was developed as a base for launching missiles. The protective cover was supposed to open in a second, at the same time the engine started and the rocket took off. A similar design remained in the "plans".
Specialists in the strategic direction were quite satisfied with the construction, but in practice it turned out to be not so simple. As a result, we created a base with a typlicator and a retractable sliding roof. The specified modification was equipped with a transfer box with an electro-pneumatic controller and a standard rear-wheel drive with the ability to activate the middle through axle.
The machine of this category was developed as a base for heavy military mechanisms. Volley launchers and radar systems were mounted on the base. In addition, this chassis could be equipped with a pile driver, bridge layer, cranes and excavators. On an elongated version, pontoon motor elements and ferry parts were transported. The finished crossings had a length of up to 270 meters and a carrying capacity of about 360 tons.
The ten-ton KrAZ military tractor was equipped with diesel "engines" with a capacity of up to 360 horsepower. The truck was designed to work with trailers weighing up to 27 tons, which made it possible to operate them for transporting anti-aircraft "long-range" missiles, 5P launchers (and analogues). New modifications of army vehicles began to be produced in the early 60s. The updated equipment was focused on the transportation of artillery systems and related equipment. By the beginning of the 70s, several prototypes were created, which were equipped with different cabins, a diesel engine with a power of 300 “horses” and an independent suspension unit for all wheels. Model 259 belongs to the auto legends of the USSR. The trucks were planned to be used in aggregation with a two-axle active semi-trailer as part of a road train (wheel formula - 10x10).
The next kind of restyling of the car in question in the city of Kremenchug occurred in the early 80s. Modernization was carried out in connection with the order of the Government regarding the development of lifting vehicles from 12 to 18 tons. As a result, developedcabover machines with a pair of control rods and an articulated frame. The revolutionary flatbed truck for that time came out under the index 4Р-3120.
Soon a long-wheelbase analogue appeared, designed to carry 18 tons of cargo, equipped with a working platform 10 meters long and a 360-horsepower YaMZ-8421 unit. Despite all the advantages, such vehicles were too long and expensive to manufacture, as a result of which they never went into the "series".
Before the collapse of the USSR
From 1987 to 1991, the machine was developed in several promising directions:
- Bonnet trucks type 5E-63151 with an upgraded cab.
- Tractors with a payload capacity of 10 tons (4Э-6440).
- 15-ton versions of 6E-6316 with a YaMZ diesel engine with a capacity of 420 horsepower.
- Varieties of KrAZ 6322 "Soldat" and "Siberia", equipped with a three-seat cab with a multi-section windshield and the possibility of attaching protective armored elements.
The cars could work as part of road trains, developed speeds up to 90 km/h, passed garage and field tests. However, after the collapse of the USSR, work on the release of these modifications ceased.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the AvtokrAZ plant was transformed into a holding company. At the same time, the plant lost its main sales market represented by the Ministry of Defense. Since the mid-1990s, the enterprise has focused mainly on the production of civilian equipment withupdated engines and cabins.
Before 1995, several modifications with two axles, designed for the construction and municipal sectors, rolled off the assembly line. Then they created an army "five-tonner" on a shortened base of these trucks. The car was developed with YaMZ "engines", with a capacity of 330 horsepower with turbine supercharging. The following year, they released a "tactical" version for 10 tons, which differs from its predecessors in an updated lining and wing configuration. Based on it, several modifications have been created:
- 11-ton long frame;
- repair and recovery equipment;
- tow tractor;
- manipulator cranes;
- SAM carriers and tankers.
KrAZ 6322 Raptor
The total weight of this modification is about 23 tons, and the load capacity is 6000 kg. At the same time, the machine is able to tow a trailer weighing up to 30 tons. A loophole is provided under each window opening of the troop department. Additional protection against a possible blast wave provides a decent ground clearance. In addition, the four-wheel drive truck easily overcomes fords up to one and a half meters deep.
A decent cross-country ability is guaranteed by cross-axle and center differentials. An eight-cylinder turbine engine acts as a power unit. He is able to disperse the car up to 80 km / h. At one gas station, the car travels about 1.5 thousand kilometers thanks to two fuel tanks of 250 liters each. "Raptor" is a military truck that is not inferior in terms ofcharacteristics and security of foreign counterparts.
KrAZ 5233BE "Spetsnaz"
Multi-purpose equipment belongs to the "novelties" of the Kremenchug plant, produced since 2008. The onboard bonnet truck is equipped with a 4x4 wheel formula and wide-profile “rubber”. The machine is focused on the transportation of people and various kinds of goods. The car has an increased cross-country ability, is able to tow various trailers and aircraft at the airfield.
The layout of the "Spetsnaz" provides for the placement of the driver's seat behind the engine, which guarantees free access to the transmission and engine systems for their maintenance and repair. The interior equipment of the machine is simple and as functional as possible. The advantages of the modification include comfortable accommodation for the driver and passengers, as well as the presence of thoughtful ventilation and an autonomous heater. The steering column is adjustable in two positions, the work chair is equipped with a pneumatic system. The dashboard is informative and compact.
Features of Model 5233 BE
Below are the main parameters of the KrAZ Spetsnaz:
- motor - V-shaped turbine diesel with a volume of 14.8 l;
- power rating - 330 hp;
- speed - 1300 rpm;
- transmission - 8-speed manual;
- fuel tanks - 2 tanks of 250 liters each;
- average fuel consumption per 100 km - 35 l;
- dimensions - 7, 8/2, 7/3, 2 m;
- clearance - 40 cm;
- curb weight - 11.2 tons;
- carrying capacity - 6.0 t plus trailer up to 10.0 t;
- suspension - springs with semi-elliptical elements;
- brakes - ABS available;
- steering - with hydraulic booster.
The truck in question (manufactured in the city of Kremenchug) is classified as a reliable and practical vehicle, characterized by a high cross-country ability, reasonable price and maintainability.