At the end of 2013, the law "On Road Safety" was amended. The driver's license has taken on a new look, and types of vehicles have been divided into more categories. The new license plate now has a pink/blue background. Category "A1" (as well as "B1", "C1", "D1") allows drivers to drive light vehicles.
Renewed driver's license
At the beginning of March 2011 in Russia they began to issue the rights of a new type. They differ from the "old" driver's licenses in appearance, the addition of a barcode and the expansion of the list of additional categories that allow you to drive individual vehicles. In the updated rights there was a category "A1", "BE", "Tm-tram" and some others. Most of the subcategories were introduced on 11/05/2013.
On newAccording to the rules, the owner of a moped (scooter) does not have the right to drive a vehicle until he receives a driver's license of a certain category. This also includes light quad bikes. At the same time, mopeds can be driven with the "old" rights. The issuance of updated driver's licenses is carried out by traffic police officers from April 1 of this year. Rights issued in 2011-2014 comply with international standards and are valid in all countries that have signed the Convention on Road Traffic.
2014 vehicle categories
The main categories of the vehicle remained in the rights of the new sample: "A", "B", "C", "D". But now each of them is divided into several new subcategories. From 11/05/2013, the following list can be seen in driver's licenses:
- Category "M" - light ATVs, mopeds.
- Category "A" - motorcycles.
- Category "A1" - motorcycles with an engine capacity of not more than 125 cm33 and a maximum power of 11 kilowatts.
- Category "B" - almost all cars, including SUVs and light trucks.
- Category "B1" - models of tricycles and quadricycles.
- Category "C" - vehicles with a maximum authorized mass (MPM) of 3500 kg. This even includes cars with trailers with an MRM of 750 kg.
- Category "C1" - a car with a permitted weight of 3500–7500 kg; vehicles with trailers having an MRM of 750 kg.
- Category "D" - all buses.
- Category "D1" - gives the right to drive small buses, including 8-16 passenger seats.
- Category "B1" - cars of category "B", connected to a trailer, where the MRM > is 750 kg and more than the mass of the car without load.
- Category "CE" - cars with category "C" connected to a trailer with a maximum authorized mass above 750 kg.
- Category "C1E" - cars of category "C1", connected to a trailer, whose MRM > is 750 kg, but not exceeding the mass of the car without load, provided that the total permitted mass of the train is not more than 1200 kg.
- Category "DE" - cars with category "D" connected to a trailer, whose MRM does not exceed 750 kg; this also includes articulated buses.
- Category "D1E" - includes cars of category "D1", connected to a trailer, in which the MRM is less than 750 kg, but it does not exceed the mass of the car without load, provided that the total maximum permitted mass of the train is not more than 1200 kg.
- Category "Tm" - tram.
- Category "Tb" - trolleybuses.
Required age for each category of rights
- Citizens of the Russian Federation who have reached the age of 16 can get the category "A1" and "M"
- Ids of categories "A", "B", "C", "B1", "C1" are issued to persons over 18 years of age.
- "D", "Tm", "Tb", "D1" - categoriescan be obtained by citizens from the age of 21.
- Subcategories "BE", "CE", "DE" are issued to Russian citizens who have more than 1 year of driving license categories "B", "C", "D", respectively.
- "C1E", "D1E" can be obtained by citizens who have driving licenses with categories "C", "D", "C1", "D1" for more than 1 year.
You can take the exam for categories "B" and "C" from the age of 17, but driver's licenses are issued only at the age of 18. Persons in military service can receive categories "D", "D1" from the age of 19.
This vehicle designation is located at the very top of the special column of the driver's license and provides the ability to drive motor vehicles. Category "A1" gives the right to be the driver of lighter motorcycles. With category "A", the driver can drive a two-wheeled vehicle (both with and without side trailers). He also has the right to drive three- and four-wheeled vehicles with a curb weight of 632,231,400 kg. To "saddle" a two-wheeled friend, you need to be trained with passing a theoretical, practical exam. An A-category driver's license can be obtained at the age of 18. With such a license, you can also ride old models of sidecars.
Driver's licenses of the new type have expanded the list of vehicle categories. Today in the UK there is even a category "G". It allows you to drive an asph alt paver. But the rights of category "A1" in Russia are issued upon reaching the age of 16. They give the right to drive "light" motorcycles. These include two-wheeled vehicles with a working engine capacity of up to 125 cm3, with a power not exceeding 11 kW. Category "A1" in the license means that the driver can drive three-wheeled vehicles with engine power above 50 cm3 or speed over 45 km/h. At the same time, their mass without load should be 550 kg or less. If the driver has a license with category "A", then he can drive a vehicle of subcategory "A1". The back of the new driver's licenses contains the start and end dates for each category.
Procedure for obtaining a license to drive a "light" motorcycle
It is not uncommon for teens to ride mopeds and motorcycles without a proper driver's license. But to pass on the category "A1" is not difficult. A 16-year-old citizen of the Russian Federation needs:
- learn the basic provisions of traffic rules;
- learn to drive a two-wheeled vehicle by hiring an experienced instructor;
- get medical help;
- correctly complete the tasks of the theoretical, practical exam in the traffic police.
What skills are tested on the practical part of the exam
A student who wants to have a category "A1" license must demonstrate certain skills in the traffic police, that is, perform a series of maneuvers.
- Ride your motorcycle in a straight line, shifting from low to high gears and vice versa.
- Show the ability to drive a two-wheeled vehicle at minimum speed and at the same time keep your foot on the footboard - "rut board".
- Perform a turn and turn of a small radius: "snake", "marking circle", "eight".
If the examinee does not perform the "rut board" or "eight", turns off the engine at the moment of starting the motorcycle from a place, during a stop cannot turn off the gear while the engine is running, the exam ends. The driver candidate is marked "not passed". The question arises of how to get the category "A1" in case of failure of the practical exam. It's simple: you should perform the above maneuvers in the traffic police again after 7 days (in the case of passing the exam from a driving school).
Who is not allowed to drive a vehicle with category "A1"
To get a license, a future driver needs to pass a special medical examination. Those who wish to drive a two-wheeled "friend" are examined by the following specialists: otolaryngologist, ophthalmologist, surgeon, narcologist, psychiatrist, neuropathologist, therapist, gynecologist (women).
Rights for category "A1" are not issued if the medical commission refuses to issue a certificate of suitability for drivingTS. The Ministry of He alth has identified a list of diseases for which it is prohibited to obtain rights. Among them:
- diseases of the eyes, hearing organs (chronic);
- diseases of the heart, blood vessels;
- mental illnesses;
- diseases of a surgical nature;
- mental retardation;
- epilepsy fits;
- chronic alcoholism;
- any form of substance abuse.
Special Medical Commission may issue a conclusion on the unfitness to drive the vehicle for a period not exceeding 5 years.
How to replace the old-style rights
For Russian citizens, driver's licenses are valid for a certain period (maximum 10 years), after which they are considered invalid. To replace or restore rights, you do not need to take exams. You should contact the traffic police department, take your passport, "old" certificate, medical certificate and its photocopy with you. All documents must be given to the traffic police officer, who, after checking them, issues receipts to the driver for payment of state duties. Rights change on the day of application.
In some cases, a different period may be set: if the traffic police need to additionally verify the authenticity of documents or the identity of the driver who is suspicious. Before starting the process of replacing rights, it is better to pay off past fines so that the inspectors do not have unnecessary questions during the verification of documents. Taking pictures of drivers on a driver's license of a new type inMREO. Since 2011, it has been possible to obtain two types of rights. The first is in the form of a paper laminated form, having the size of a passport. The second type is a plastic card. "Old" driver's licenses continue to be valid until the expiration date indicated on them.