Serial production of the ZIL 5301 "Bull" lifting vehicle started at the plant named after. Likhachev in 1996. The decision to produce a medium-duty vehicle was made after the demand for other products dropped sharply at the plant. The management was forced to urgently look for new solutions to maintain the viability of the enterprise. The way out of the financial crisis was the development by designers of production for the manufacture of a three-ton truck. Subsequently, the novelty was popularly called "Bull".
Destination of the machine
The load-lifting onboard ZIL "Bull", so named by drivers for its reliability and carrying capacity, was used to transport various materials in dense city traffic. The compact chassis allowed drivers to maneuver through traffic as well as with ease.park in the narrow streets of cities. The small dimensions of the car made it possible to save space in the parking lot.
The diesel engine proved to be a very reliable and economical power unit, which significantly reduced the cost of companies for transportation. The fuel consumption of a serviceable ZIL of this model was about 12 liters in a combined driving cycle. All of the above factors have made this medium-duty vehicle a bestseller. Small business executives especially liked him.
On the photo in the article stands in the yard of the native plant onboard ZIL 5301 "Bull". The enterprise, named after Likhachev, also produced a lot of modifications of the famous bull truck, which were intended for various purposes. All modifications of the car of this brand are listed below:
- ZIL with index 5301АО. Is the base version of the model.
- Loading ZIL "Bull" 5301BO. The letter designation at the end of the marking meant that the truck was made with a platform that allows you to install additional equipment. Also, such a car, at the request of the customer, was equipped with one of several bodies to choose from. Typically, such vehicles were purchased by utilities to transport heavy and bulky equipment.
- The designation "GO" or "PO" means that the "Bull" is equipped with a capacious closed body (metal, isothermal).
- The letters "DO" in the name of the car mean that the truck is equipped with an extendedplatform.
- ZIL 5301EO is a truck with an extended platform and a body for various purposes.
- Loading ZIL "Bull" van. Its marking: 5301IO.
- ZIL 5301TO - a machine with a cab for four people. It also has four doors.
- ZIL 5301YuO - a car equipped with a cab, where there is a sleeping place for rest and sleep.
Also, the Likhachev plant produced small batches of ZIL 5301 "Bychok" trucks, the technical characteristics of which made it possible to carry out transportation with a low loading height. To do this, special sliding doors were installed on the cars on the right side so that people could safely go inside and leave the cab without much difficulty.
In 1998, production launched the production of minibuses based on the ZIL “Bychok”. The technical characteristics of the car made it possible to accommodate from 15 to 19 passengers in its cabin. The quantity depended on the modification.
Main parameters of the truck
Many truck drivers are interested in the question of what is the carrying capacity of the ZIL 3501 "Bull". This car in the basic modification 5301AO had excellent technical characteristics. Among them:
- The maximum load capacity of the ZIL "Bull" according to the passport is 3450 kg.
- Total vehicle weight is 3350 kg.
- The impact of the front axle of the car on the roadway, transmitted through the tires - 1900 kgf.
- The impact of the rear axle of the car on the roadway, transmitted through the tires - 1450 kgf.
- Maximum total vehicle weight when fully loaded is 6950kg.
- The impact of the front axle of a car with a full load on the roadway, transmitted through tires - 2350 kgf;
- The impact of the rear axle of a car with a full load on the roadway, transmitted through tires - 4900 kgf.
- Engine power - 136 horsepower.
- Ride height - 160 mm.
- Turn at a radius of 7.8 mm.
- Diesel fuel consumption per 100 kilometers - 12 liters.
The “bull” design is considered traditional for medium-capacity rear-wheel drive trucks. The main part of the machine is a rigid frame on which the power units (diesel engine, manual gearbox and clutch) are installed. The cabin and spring units with shock absorbers are also attached to it. Through the chassis of the ZIL 5301 car, the rear and front axles are attached to the frame.
Several types of diesel engines are used on domestic trucks of this brand. All of them are manufactured at the Minsk Automobile Plant. The gearbox is only mechanical.
Truck accessories include:
- Power steering.
- Pneumatically assisted hydraulic brakes.
The truck, popularly called "Bull", has the following main components and parts:
- Metal frameladder type.
- Longitudinal spars made of steel profiles.
- Cross bars made of steel pipes and channels.
All parts listed above are bolted to each other and to the frame.
Two types of engines were used as a power unit:
- Starting from 1996, ZIL 5301 trucks left the gates of their native Minsk Mechanical Plant with turbocharged engines. Their brand is D-245.
- At the beginning of 2008, cars began to be equipped with a more modern and economical Belarusian engine D-245.9 E3. The last abbreviation means that the motor complies with Eurostandard No. 3 in terms of the amount of harmful and toxic emissions into the atmosphere.
The diesel engine on the Bull has 4 cylinders operating in a four-stroke mode. They are arranged in a single row longitudinally. The engine has a gas turbine pressurization and a closed liquid cooling system.
Other technical characteristics of the D-245 engine are listed:
- Displacement of the cylinder group - 4.76 liters.
- Compression ratio - 15.
- Consumption - 158 g/hp.h.
- Power unit - 136 hp
- The number of revolutions in nominal mode per minute is 2400.
- Torque - 47 kgm at 1300 rpm.
- Motor weight - 430 kg.
The clutch mechanism consists of a single disc that worksin dry mode. On the disk is a damper of torsional vibrations. The clutch guard is made of steel and the pressure plate is made of gray cast iron. The clutch mechanism is disengaged due to the hydraulic type drive.
Manual transmission device
The car's manual transmission operates in five modes. The driving mode is selected manually by the driver. Mechanical gear shifting is synchronized.
Gimbal and rear axle
Gimbal transmission for ZIL 5301 "Bull" consists of two steel tubular shafts. To strengthen the structure, they are supported by an intermediate metal support. Needle bearings are pressed into the end pivot joints.
The high load capacity of the ZIL "Bull" is provided by the rear axle with a single-stage transmission. The differential is assembled from bevel gears. The vehicle is also fitted with unloaded axle shafts.
The steering on the car is equipped with a hydraulic booster, which makes it much easier to work with a loaded car.
Thanks to the high carrying capacity of the ZIL "Bull" on the front axle it has disc brakes for the most efficient braking, and drum units at the rear. The drive for stopping the car is hydraulic double-circuit, equipped with pneumatic reinforcement.
The drum type brakes have a shoe type parking brake.
On a ZIL truck, the front suspension consists of two semi-elepticsprings and two hydraulic shock absorbers. The rear axle is equipped with two main and two auxiliary springs.
The basic version of the car ZIL 5301, which is often called the "Bull", is equipped with a cab for 3 seats. In addition, it is equipped with the following components:
- Two doors.
- Two passenger seats, cannot be adjusted in height or angle.
- Radiator for cabin heating. It is connected to the liquid cooling system of the motor.
- Driver's seat equipped with springs. It is adjustable for firmness, height and backrest.
- Glass cleaner with three brushes and nozzles for spraying with water or antifreeze.
Cars of this version with a cab for six people were also produced. She had 4 doors and 2 rows of seats.
Dignity of a truck
The main advantage of the performance characteristics of the ZIL 5301 "Bull" in size and carrying capacity. As practice shows, the car can be loaded up to 5 tons. At the same time, the suspension from such a weight does not sag and is not subject to increased wear. The small dimensions of the truck allow the driver to move along narrow streets to objects remote from highways and major roads.
Loading ZIL "Bull" is structurally simple and made of not very expensive materials. The owners of these vehicles are convinced that the cost of operating and maintaining such equipment is minimal. Additional benefits are listed below:
- Repair can be done by yourself if you have the necessarytool and minimum skills.
- The car has earned quite a lot of popularity among dozens of small and large companies in Russia, because spare parts for it are inexpensive and always in stock.
- The high load capacity of ZIL "Bychka" is provided by a diesel engine that does not require much fuel during its operation.
- Modifications of the car "Bull" allow you to perform various tasks assigned to enterprises.
- The truck is equipped with a diesel engine, which belongs to the tractor power units. It is quite noisy and produces a lot of vibration in the cab, but it has proven to be capable of working in the most difficult conditions during operation. It is easy to maintain and durable. The oil in the power unit must be changed every 10 thousand kilometers. On a serviceable engine, it is not necessary to add lubricant during operation.
But the described car has many disadvantages. Of these, we highlight the most basic:
- Sloppy build quality.
- The components of the car are not very reliable.
- Levers to adjust the driver's seat break quickly.
- In winter, the cabin does not heat up to a comfortable level. This is due to the fact that the diesel engine takes a long time to heat up and cannot provide efficient interior heating.
- The cab of the truck is poorly made. Gaps can be detected at the joints with the naked eye. While driving, people often complain about drafts, especially during the cold season.
- Starting a diesel engine at ZIL in winter is a rather difficult task. It is necessary to preheat the power unit using an electric torch device or an engine preheater.
- The starter of the car is powered by 24 volts, and the rest of the electrics are powered by 12 volts. To start the engine successfully, the driver has to switch the starter contacts from one battery to another weekly, since only one of the two power sources is regularly charged.
- The rear axle often breaks, resulting in costly repairs.
- The manual transmission does not allow efficient acceleration when the vehicle is fully loaded.
We have presented the full characteristics of the truck ZIL 5301 "Bull".