The exhaust system in cars is necessary for the ejection of combustion products from the engine cylinders. Standard design consists of catalytic converters, exhaust manifold and muffler. If you look, the principle of operation of the exhaust system is quite simple. Even people who are far from automotive topics will be able to understand the scheme of work. The main thing is the task that this system solves. It is designed to clean the engine cylinders from exhaust gases.
These exhaust tracts are found on most vehicles and they do the job just fine. But lovers of speed and power are constantly tuning their cars. And any refinement always begins with the modernization of the exhaust system.
And the first thing that changes is the exhaust. Often a sports car is installed on a completely civilian car.exhaust system. Consider how the sports version differs from the civilian one, and also find out the pros and cons of such tuning.
Directional exhaust: what is it?
When the exhaust valve opens, a small amount of exhaust gases enter the manifold little by little. If the car's engine is diesel, then they first activate the turbocharger, and then go into the pipe. From the latter they are sent to the atmosphere.
In the case of gasoline engines, after the gases pass through the manifold, they are immediately sent to the exhaust pipe. Then they move on according to the scheme. But it works with a standard exhaust.
With the alternative, everything is a little different. The sports exhaust system has a different structure. After the combustion of the combustible mixture in the engine cylinders, waste substances are formed. This system is designed to remove them.
Removal of gases is necessary in order to make room for a new portion of the mixture. The process is possible due to the fact that a piston moves in the combustion chamber and squeezes out the combustion products through a special valve. The latter is located at the end of the cylinder. But on the other hand, the formation of a rarefied medium is possible. It is in order to avoid this problem that many install a direct-flow exhaust. Although it is nothing more than a sports exhaust system.
The answer to this question is very simple. Due to the rarefaction, the gases that remain in the combustion chamber can leave the cylinder faster. They are pushed intoatmosphere. Gases are literally drawn out of the cylinder. Due to the rarefaction of the combustion chamber, they are better cleaned, and also qualitatively prepared for a new portion of the combustible mixture. Newcomers to car tuning may wonder where this sparsity comes from.
The law of inertia of gases works here. After the pressure rises in the exhaust pipe, a rarefied front is formed. If the pipe has bends or there are other elements in it that can prevent the free exit of gases, then they are very reluctant to leave the engine. This reduces the filling ratio of the cylinders. Along with this, the engine power also decreases.
In a direct-flow exhaust system, there are no significant barriers to the free exit of gases. The system is designed in such a way that nothing obstructs or seals the escaping gases. In addition, tuning enthusiasts often increase the diameter of a metal pipe. This is done in order to speed up the level of movement of gases.
Typical sports exhaust system
Inline exhaust comes standard with a manifold that can be replaced with a downpipe. The latter can be branched according to the number of cylinders. A catalytic converter is also installed on modern cars. Exhaust gases are cleaned in it.
Next, a resonator is installed. It is necessary for the primary noise reduction. Then, through a small section of pipe, the exhaust system endssilencer. This element is often improved with the help of various sensors. In addition, particulate filters can be found on its way.
Why do exhaust system tuning?
The manufacturer installs a huge number of parts on their cars that prevent the free cleaning of combustion chambers and the release of combustion products. Often, owners may experience compression related issues.
You also need to know that the sports exhaust system is not equipped with a particulate filter. And the resonator has a reduced level of resistance. But this problem is fixable. To do this, simply replace the exhaust manifold.
The manifold layout depends on the length of the system. So, a shorter device will be built on a two-tier type. The longer one will be three-tiered. The first system is most suitable for uprated engines.
So he can get power or extra revs. The second scheme is ideal for civilian city cars. This is how sports exhaust systems VAZ 2110-2114 are arranged.
But it is important to remember that even small changes made to the design of the exhaust system require careful tuning of the intake tract and engine power system.
About the resonator
In order to get maximum performance from the combustion chambers of the engine, it is necessary to install the resonator where the exhaust gas pressure will be the lowest. In this section, reflectors prolong the speedgas movement.
This improves the scavenging of the combustion chambers. This allows you to get higher engine speeds. And the silencer should be installed as far as possible from the resonator. This is necessary so that both devices cannot affect the rarefaction in the exhaust system.
Benefits of sports exhaust systems
Before you go and buy a sports exhaust system (including 1118 Kalina), you need to familiarize yourself with the pros and cons of such a replacement. Among the advantages, one can single out an increase in the power of the power unit by an average of 5-10%, despite the fact that all work will be done correctly.
The sound quality will also improve - this will transform the car, give it a desirable, aggressive character. The sports exhaust system on the VAZ 2114 will make others perceive this car in a new way.
Also, such a replacement will increase the overall life of the muffler. The sports system uses better materials.
Disadvantages of straight-through exhaust
Now for the cons. Installing a direct-flow exhaust can lead to certain problems during the inspection. If you get acquainted with the traffic rules, then such tuning is unacceptable. The reason for this is higher volumes of harmful gases into the atmosphere and increased operating noise. Today it is punished especially harshly. Therefore, it is worth considering whether a sports exhaust system is really needed (VAZ 2107 is no exception), or you can get by with the civilian version.
Also to the consinclude fuel consumption. With the installation of direct-flow exhaust, consumption will inevitably increase. Therefore, such tuning is an additional expense. Even the neighbors may sharply increase interest in the car because of the sounds that the car makes. It is very difficult to explain to them the noise of the forward flow in the yard in the early morning.
Another disadvantage is the reduced ground clearance due to the larger pipe. Also, due to design features, the engine cools faster in winter, which can lead to certain problems with starting.
But all these problems are relevant for owners of inexpensive cars, but if a person has a Porsche Cayenne, a sports exhaust system for a car of this class will be very useful. Those who drive such cars are well off and don't care about fuel costs. The main thing is power, speed and sound.
Can I make my own?
The design of a straight-through muffler is not so complicated. The system itself consists of a casing with sound-absorbing material inside, a direct-flow outlet, a steel mesh and a perforated pipe.
A sports exhaust system is made (including Ford Focus 2) from old-type elements that were previously installed on the car. You will also need other materials - two pipes of different diameters. You need a sound absorber. The pipe that will be used to create the exhaust must be able to withstand high temperatures.
The straight-through exhaust is the first to take on the hot gases from the engine. For mountingforward flow, it is necessary to dismantle the old system and cut out all the insides.
Then take a pipe of a smaller diameter, which must completely match the size of the old one. After that, a hole is made at the junction of the elements. Next, weld a pipe of a larger diameter. The best fit is a 200 mm pipe, the length of which is 1 m.
Further, the whole structure is inserted into the old body and welded on both sides. After that, you need to take sound-absorbing material. It must be heat resistant. Ideally, glass wool is used. This material must be wrapped around the muffler assembled by oneself on top.
The whole structure is then wrapped in stainless steel sheet. At the end, you need to fix the muffler. This is done using clips welded to the body.
If you need a sports exhaust system for your Ford Focus 3 in the shortest possible time, you can simply buy the right one. Today, there are many designs for all brands of cars. Specialized services have also appeared that deal only with tuning exhaust systems. They have a large selection of designs with different tones.
There are even systems with multiple modes of operation. Experienced specialists will install the sports system they like in a short time, and the owner will be able to enjoy the result. If you do such tuning with your own hands, it will take a lot of time, effort and money.
Every car owner wants his car to have some personality. Therefore, many go tosuch an improvement. Yes, in some cases even a small increase in power is possible. But what's the use of a Ford S-Max sports exhaust system, considering it's a minivan?
Draw your own conclusions. In fact, this tuning is quite controversial. The increase in power will be almost imperceptible, but fuel consumption will increase significantly. Also quite noticeable problems in the winter. Before installing forward flow, you need to carefully weigh everything.