UralZiS-355M: specifications. Freight car. Ural Automobile Plant named after Stalin
UralZiS-355M: specifications. Freight car. Ural Automobile Plant named after Stalin

Historians of domestic technology believe that on the day when the last UralZiS-355M came off the assembly line of the Miass Automobile Plant, the era of the three-ton ZiS-5 ended. He is also "Zakhar Ivanovich", as he was called by the people. Which during the war years became a real legend. Why exactly then? The fact is that the 355M was the last modification of the famous Zakhara. But this car, by the way, which became a very successful and completely independent development, was undeservedly pushed to the back of the history of the Soviet automotive industry.



In the autumn of 1941, the defense enterprises of Moscow, including the Stalin Plant (ZiS), were evacuated to the east of the country to the cities: Ulyanovsk, Chelyabinsk, Miass. On November 30 of the same year, the State Defense Committee (GKO) decided to urgently redesign Miass Plant No. 316, which manufactures aerial bombs, and, using the production base of the capital's ZiS, organize the production of engines for cars and tank gearboxes.

In April 1942, the tasks were completed - the shops started working. And a year later, by decision of the GKO, the plant was again waiting for transformation - into a narrowly focused enterprise for the productiontrucks. For this, the assembly facilities from Ulyanovsk, where the three-ton ZiS-5V tanks were assembled, were transferred to Miass. From that moment on, all the capacities of the new car plant were directed to the production of trucks.

Freight car
Freight car

Ural "Zakhar"

July 8, 1944, the first Ural Zakharas left the factory gates, but already under their own name - UralZiS-5V.

A feature of the Miass three-ton truck was that, compared to the Moscow model, this truck was simplified and reduced in price to the limit. To do this, stamped wings with a rounded shape were removed from the structure, replacing them with welded L-shaped ones. The cabin was sheathed with clapboard from the inside. The metal steps and the steering wheel rim were replaced with wooden, iron mudguards with plywood, of the two headlights only the left (driver's) was left. The cabin heating system, as well as door windows, were no longer installed. The brake system worked only on the rear axle.

UralZiS-355M dimensions
UralZiS-355M dimensions

Such measures made it possible to save 124 kg of sheet iron from each machine, which was very important for wartime. In addition, the lightening of the car, in conjunction with the use of the 77-horsepower ZiS-5M engine, increased its dynamics by 35%, and the Ural truck became 10-16% more economical compared to Moscow ZiSs.

Out of step with the times

After the return of the Stalin Plant from evacuation to its native, metropolitan workshops, the further development of Zakhar Ivanovich went in two different ways: in Moscow, the ZiS-5 was first transformedin the ZiS-150, then in the ZiS-164, and through the ZiS-164A (intermediate model) in the ZiS-130. That is, progress was in full swing. In Miass, the archaic ZiS-5V was still assembled.

It would be unfair to say that UralZiS did not try to improve Zakhara. In 1947, the Urals began developing the UralZiS-353, a modernized three-ton tanker. Work continued until 1951, but an insoluble problem arose: trying to get rid of the old-fashioned, angular cockpit, the designers came up with an option that looked similar to the ZiS-150, but it turned out to be very problematic to make stamps for its serial production under the existing conditions. As a result, work on the project was stopped.

Temporary measure

Since it was not possible to finish the new car, and the ZiS-5 was obsolete in all respects, it was decided to put into production, on a temporary basis, a truck under the UralZiS-5M marking.

UralZiS-355M cockpit
UralZiS-355M cockpit

Outwardly, it practically did not differ from the Zakhar, because the old-style cabin was still installed on the car, only the wings now had a rounded, streamlined shape, similar to the one that was on pre-war cars. But inside the truck has changed a lot.

New "stuffing" for the old truck

First of all, the modified "Zakhar" received an updated engine, in which they were improved: KShM and block head, aluminum pistons were installed, and a new carburetor. Together, this made it possible to change the compression ratio, increasing it to 5.7 (the previous one was 4.6), thanks to which the engine power increased (from 76 to 85 hp), and by 7%reduced fuel consumption. The maximum speed of the car has increased by 10 km/h and is now 70 km/h.

Also, a full-flow oil cleaner, a preheater, which for the first time in the industry provide engine start even at temperatures below 20 degrees, were introduced into the design of the truck; new steering mechanism; fuel tank 110 liters; 12 volt electrical equipment; and a number of other minor improvements. By the way, most of the innovations were taken from the experienced "353rd".

Solving the 353 problem

In 1956, there was a chance to finally move the UralZiS-353 business off the ground. At this time, work was underway on the GAZ-62 at the Gorky Automobile Plant. Initially, the designers planned a bonnet layout for this truck. Therefore, the cabin itself was a slightly revised version of the GAZ-51 model. But soon she was abandoned. Gorky decided to use a cabin that would be located above the engine. However, for the first, rejected option, the stamps were already ready, and now they are unclaimed.

A. A. Lipgart, a teacher at Bauman University, previously a chief designer at GAZ, and an engineer at a car factory in Miass, was well aware of the problems of the Urals. It was he who advised the stamps that were already unnecessary at GAZ to be transferred to colleagues at UralZiS, which was done.

UralZiS-355M car

With the purchase of a new cabin, UralZiS-353 received another number marking - “355M”. And although this car was considered an improvement on the old Zakhar Ivanovich, in fact it was practically new.truck model. The wheelbase remained almost unchanged, that is, the same as that of the ZiS-5 (3842 mm), but the main dimensions of the UralZiS-355M have changed, mainly due to the body platform lengthened by 470 mm. Since such a transformation is associated with an increased carrying capacity of the machine (up to 3-5 tons), both the body itself and its attachment to the frame were strengthened, for this, strong forging was used, as well as more rigid squares. By the way, outwardly, the UralZiS-355M, the cabin of which was a slightly redesigned version of the GAZ-51, in combination with the new body, became similar to the increased size of the Lawn.

355 engine upgrade

The engine of the updated truck has also undergone a serious revision: the designers used a wet cylinder head with enlarged bores and forced crankcase ventilation. In addition, the profile of the camshaft cams has been changed, the lubrication system has been improved, and anti-corrosion liners have been inserted into the cylinder block. The rear oil seal mounted on the crankshaft eliminated the leakage of oil from the crankcase through the bearing, which was a characteristic drawback for the ZiS-5. Improvement in the drive of auxiliary mechanisms has significantly reduced noise during engine operation. In general, the upgrade of the UralZiS-355M power unit reduced its weight by 30 kg.

Other changes made to the design of the truck

In the gearbox, the stuffing box seals were significantly improved, reinforced spring clips were used, thanks to which the third gear stopped self-disengaging, as often happened on the Zakhar. In addition, checkpointmore accurately centered in relation to the engine crankshaft.

The UralZiS-355M bridge design and transformations did not bypass. Ahead, the pivot assembly was reinforced, and store grease was also used. Due to the fact that the front wheel track was increased on the new truck, the wheel beam also became longer. In the rear axle, which is the leading one, the designers installed a reinforced gearbox, and linings for the gears of the axle shafts, and also changed the centering of the differential cups.

The front suspension was made in the form of an elongated spring with a shock absorber, which made it quite soft. The rear, on the contrary, has become stiffer due to an increase in the size of the cross-section of the leaf springs.

To increase the maneuverability of the car, a new steering mechanism with simplified kinematics and a gear ratio of 20.5: 1 was installed (the ZiS-5 had 15.9: 1).

UralZiS-355M specifications
UralZiS-355M specifications

In addition, the UralZiS-355M used a modern single-wire 12-volt system, sidelights, a foot switch-pedal for switching light (far-near), a relay-regulator with direction indicators. For the convenience of night maintenance, a lamp was installed under the hood. In addition, the instrument panel has been updated, and a cockpit light has been added.

Good cross-country ability of the truck was ensured by increased ground clearance, well-chosen entry-exit angles (44 degrees - front, 27.5 - rear), as well as improved engine traction.

UralZiS-355M: specifications

They looked like thisway:

  • Wheel formula - 4x2.
  • Dimensions - 6290 mm x 2280 mm x 2095 mm.
  • Ground clearance - 26.2 mm.
  • Wheelbase: 1675mm rear, 1611mm front.
  • Turning radius (outer) - 8.3 meters.
  • Gross vehicle weight - 7050 kg.
  • Curb weight - 3400 kg.
  • The load capacity of UralZiS-355M is 3500 kg.
  • Engine power - 95 l/s.
  • Fuel tank capacity - 110 liters.
  • Gasoline consumption - 24 l / 100 km.
  • Maximum speed is 75 km/h.

Batch production of new machine

Despite the fact that the UralZiS-355M took so long to put into production, it was originally planned to be produced for only one year (1959), and then only in order to justify all the costs previously invested in it. However, the model did not leave the assembly line for seven years, primarily due to high consumer appreciation.

Vehicle UralZiS-355M
Vehicle UralZiS-355M

In addition, some improvements were periodically added to the design of the car: 1959 - in the universal joint crosses, the sliding bushings were replaced with needle bearings, 1960 - in the front suspension, instead of obsolete lever shock absorbers, more advanced telescopic shock absorbers were installed, 1961 g. - crankcase ventilation has become a closed type.

Despite numerous improvements along the way, the appearance of the car remained the same, except for the changed inscription: the abbreviation "ZiS" disappeared, and now it looked like this - "UralAZ". Although among the drivers the truck is stillremained "Zakhar", or else he was called "Ural".

Modifications of "Uralets"

The plant produced an updated, although it would be more accurate to say, a new "Zakhara", in two versions: UralZiS-355M - onboard, and the second - just a chassis, which was most often used for tanks.

Since the "Uralets" perfectly coped with flatbed semi-trailers, the official weight of which could be five tons, and the actual weight reached up to nine, this car was often used as a truck tractor.

UralZiS-355M, a timber carrier with a trailer, was also in demand. In addition to all of the above, the Zakhara chassis was used for watering machines, vans, sewage tanks, and compressor stations. In 1958, the Urals even produced an all-wheel drive version of the truck, however, the batch of vehicles was very small and mostly in dump trucks.

In 1960, in Kazakhstan, on the basis of the UralZiS-355M, a bus was assembled for 40 seats, and a wagon layout. In a word, the Miass car turned out to be extremely successful, despite the fact that it was only a modification of an old three-ton ZiS-5.

Plant named after Stalin
Plant named after Stalin

Wherever you need it

The years of serial production of the 355th coincided with the period of development of virgin lands and fallow lands, so the car was mainly sent to Siberia, the Far East, and also to Kazakhstan. In the central and western parts of the USSR, the car was delivered in small quantities. In 1962, a batch of trucks in the export version was sent to Afghanistan and Finland.

Total car factoryproduced 192 thousand of these machines. By the standards of mass production, the number is small, nevertheless, the car has established itself as an unpretentious, very reliable and strong car, with a large, by that standards, carrying capacity. Despite the 3.5 tons declared in the performance characteristics, without particularly straining, she was also carrying five tons of cargo. Drivers also loved it for its comparative convenience, because at that time few trucks could boast of having a cab heater. Yes, and well-assembled suspension and engine with good traction allowed the driver to feel quite confident even on a very bad road.

In general, although the UralZiS-355M did not become a legend in the Soviet automobile industry, it could well claim to be the standard of simplicity, reliability and unpretentiousness. No wonder this car was sent to work in the most difficult regions of the country in all respects.

The last car rolled off the production line on October 16, 1965. On this day, the era of "Zakhar Ivanovich" ended.

To this day, only about twenty cars have survived in a more or less decent condition, and even then, most of them are no longer able to move under their own power, and there is no way to repair them. And all because spare parts for the engine can not be found. Of course, some craftsmen still managed to install a ZiL engine under the hood, but this lost the originality and value of the car.