Some of the car owners heard that the Kalina checkpoint has a cable drive, someone - that multi-cone synchronizers are installed inside. Someone heard that in the car there is an old box developed by Renault, which was given to AvtoVAZ. How does the Kalina gearbox work, what's new in it?
Cars in the first generation were equipped with a five-speed manual gearbox VAZ-2181, where there are five forward gears and one reverse gear. The mechanism is based on the well-known gearbox from the VAZ-2108 with minor upgrades. Gearbox integrated with final drive and differential.
The Kalina gearbox is standard. It consists of the final drive pinion, secondary and input shafts, shift forks, reverse sensor, crankcase, shift mechanism and center detent.
Manufacturers thought for a long time what and how to improve in the gearbox mechanism, as a result they decided not to interfere in the gearbox mechanism, otherwise huge costs would be required,to launch the checkpoint in a series. Without the necessary equipment, it is impossible to obtain the proper quality of gear engagement and synchronizers.
Checkpoint VAZ-1117 ("Kalina") is the first for which AvtoVAZ specialists made a computer calculation of every detail in the mechanism that is subjected to loads. Crankcases, forks, levers and other elements were calculated and modeled using special software. Thus, the design turned out to be not only optimized, but also more reliable.
Primary and secondary shafts
The gearbox has a two-shaft design. Synchronizers are installed on each of the gears, except for reverse. The body of the mechanism is composite and consists of a clutch housing, a gearbox housing, a rear cover. Crankcase parts are made by casting from light aluminum alloys. Instead of gaskets between the body elements, the manufacturer uses a gasket sealant. A magnet is installed in the oil fill plug holes to trap debris.
A block of drive gears is installed on the input shaft of the mechanism, which are constantly engaged with the driven gears of the forward gears. The secondary shaft is made hollow. Due to the hollow structure, the oil enters the zone of operation of the driven gears. A removable gear of the main gear is installed on the secondary shaft - the drive gear. Also, driven gears and synchronizers are fixed on the secondary shaft.
Shafts rotate on roller and ball bearings. The first are installed in front, and the second - behind. Bearings are securely fixed on each of the shafts.Radial clearances for the front bearings are no more than 0.07 mm, and for the rear bearings - 0.04 mm. For lubrication, an oil pick-up is used, which supplies oil to the output shaft.
The driven gear in the Kalina gearbox is mounted on the flange of the two-satellite differential box. The gearbox housing has a breather - it is located on top.
With the introduction of the new box, the amount of oil has also changed. So, for the VAZ-2181 gearbox, the volume of oil decreased by 30%. The requirements for oil have also changed - AvtoVAZ switched from mineral oil to synthetic gear oils. This applies to both old models of gearboxes and new ones. The manufacturer pours oil into the gearbox and writes in the instructions that it will last for 5 years or for the entire period of operation of the gearbox. But in fact, it needs to be changed.
The oil resource in the Kalina gearbox is approximately 30 thousand km. As oil in the box, you can pick up something from domestic transmission products. So, domestic motorists speak well of the products of Lukoil and Rosneft. You can also buy imported oils - for example, from Zic. The box will thank you for it.
So, the gearbox part of the Kalina gearbox was not touched, and there are no changes here. But it is not so. For the first and second gears, multi-cone synchronizers had to be installed. This is done first of all for the sake of overall reliability - second gear is the most loaded. Due to the multi-cone synchronizer, lifetransmission will be longer. In addition, such synchronizers were also used because to make the effort to turn on the transmission minimal. Since the gearbox is also installed on other car models, including those with more powerful engines, the clutch diameter has been increased - now the mechanism has a diameter of 215 mm. A powerful clutch led to the manufacture of another crankcase - the previous one from KPP-2108 could not accommodate such a large clutch mechanism. The maximum that was placed there is 200 mm. Due to the new crankcase, the engineers had to relocate the starter.
On the first samples of the gearbox, a three-cone synchronizer was installed, but it was quickly abandoned in favor of a two-cone synchronizer - the latter is cheaper and easily "digests" the required torque.
Drive with cables
Despite the cheapness and simplicity of the traction drive gearshift, it was abandoned even at AvtoVAZ. The box on the "Kalina" is now with a cable drive. With it and the new switching mechanism, working with the selector in the Lada Kalina salon has become much easier, more accurate and more enjoyable.
Although engineers are in no hurry to hide the hydraulic clutch documentation. And perhaps soon they will implement it in the next models.
Features of the switching mechanism
If you recall the design and principle of operation of VAZ gearboxes for the Samara series, then the switching mechanism in them was from below and immersed in an oil bath. After parking in the cold, the oil in the box thickened and the gears shifted very, very tight until the engine warmed upand checkpoint. At the bottom of the gearbox, clamps were installed for the reverse fork and stem, a reverse sensor, a gear selector seal - each element was a potential source of oil leakage. Sealants helped from this, but they did not radically solve the problem. And AvtoVAZ decided to move the mechanism up.
The new switching mechanism in the VAZ-1119 ("Kalina") is a separate separate unit. It can be installed and dismantled without the need to dismantle the gearbox. This is a great solution and useful not only for fast and cheap production, which is also appreciated by repairmen. Now repairing the switching mechanism has become much easier. Due to the use of a selector grille, all gears are switched on much more accurately. There is also a blocking from reverse gear in the mechanism - reverse gear is available only from neutral.
The highlight on the cake, or rather in the box, is a special selector plate. It was she who influenced the accuracy of gear shifting. The plate replaced the standard earlier locks and return springs. To develop the plate, it took a long time to analyze the work of a person with a gearbox selector. The force on the lever was calculated using a special software package.
AvtoVAZ has turned out to be a completely modern mechanism. Here are nice accurate switching, quiet operation, no vibration. In addition, high maintainability can be distinguished.