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Fuel tank capacity. The device and dimensions of the fuel tank of the car

Fuel tank capacity. The device and dimensions of the fuel tank of the car
Fuel tank capacity. The device and dimensions of the fuel tank of the car
Anonim

Each car has its own fuel tank capacity. There is no specific standard for the volume parameter that all car manufacturers would adhere to. Let's see what are the capacities of different types of fuel tanks, determine the features and structure of these elements.

fuel tank capacity

How do manufacturers calculate fuel capacity?

It is believed that a car should have enough fuel so that it can travel 500 kilometers on one gas station. This is an unspoken rule that many automakers adhere to. Therefore, the capacity of the fuel tank will be different for cars with high and low fuel consumption.

The average fuel tank holds 55-70 liters of gasoline, however, due to the reduced fuel consumption of small engines, there is a tendency to reduce the capacity of the fuel tank. This is logical, because a passenger car with a small engine displacement needs much less fuel in order to travel 500 km. In addition, the efficiencyfuel itself grows by increasing the octane number and using various additives, which also implies savings and a decrease in tank capacity. A big jeep with a voracious engine will "eat" much more gasoline, therefore, it should have a larger fuel tank.

fuel filler neck

As for diesel, the fuel tank of cars that consume diesel fuel is often smaller compared to gasoline cars. This is logical, since the efficiency of diesel fuel is higher than the efficiency of gasoline. Therefore, a car with a 40-litre tank full of diesel fuel will travel the same distance as a car with a full 50-litre tank. But that's too rough a comparison.

Fuel tanks for passenger cars

To make the numbers approximately clear, you need to refer to the technical parameters of the cars. The new "Lada Vesta" of the Russian concern "AvtoVAZ" is equipped with a tank with a capacity of 55 liters. This is a fairly high figure, and the closest competitors - Kia Rio and Hyundai Solaris - are equipped with 43-liter tanks. The fuel consumption of these cars is approximately the same, which means that the Lada will travel a longer distance on a full tank, which is one of the advantages.

fuel tank kamaz

The larger Volkswagen Tiguan has a tank capacity of 58-64 liters (depending on the specific version), and huge cars like the Toyota Land Cruiser, with high fuel consumption, have 93 liters tanks.

As for the size, this is much more complicated. Some manufacturers make rectangular tanks that can be approximately 60x40x20 cm. There are tanks with completely different dimensions, and some manufacturers adapt these fuel containers so that they fit into the design. Their size cannot be described in three or four parameters.

Truck tank capacities

As for trucks, the KamAZ car is popular, the fuel tank of which, depending on the model, can have a different volume. The smallest capacity is 125 liters. However, due to the high fuel consumption, KamAZ is not able to travel a long distance (and even with a load) on such a tank, so the manufacturer has provided for other containers that are used on this vehicle. Thus, a KamAZ fuel tank can have a capacity of 125 to 600 liters in increments of 50 or 40 liters.

fuel tank gazelle

There may also be non-standard modifications of tanks for 700 liters. The fact is that not only the manufacturing plant manufactures fuel tanks, third-party manufacturers can also do this. In general, there is little chance of finding products from the KamAZ plant on the market, most often there are tanks from third-party manufacturers.

The second popular truck is the GAZelle. Despite the fact that this car is a truck, the GAZelle fuel tank holds only 60 liters of gasoline. And this is very inconvenient, given that the fuel consumption of the car is quite large. Consequently,when driving long distances, you have to take extra fuel cans with you.

Some owners of these cars change the old, small tank for a new one. Third-party manufacturers produce fuel tanks with a capacity of up to 150 liters for the GAZelle.

All this allows us to conclude that the fuel tank is a variable, not a constant value, and it is different for different cars. Even two identical models can use completely different fuel containers with different capacities.

car fuel tank

Huge trucks like SCANIA 113 even have tanks of 450-500 liters. The DAF XF can have an 870-litre fuel tank, while the heavy-duty MAN F90 is equipped with a 1,260-litre fuel tank. It's just incredibly large capacity, and the small 45-liter tanks of cars look ridiculous against their background.

Fuel tank device

Now that we understand how many liters a fuel tank can hold gasoline, we can talk about its design. On passenger cars, it is placed in the rear of the body, under the passenger seats. At the same time, it is covered with a strong metal plate to avoid deformation during a collision, and is also insulated from overheating using special heat-insulating gaskets.

Material

Tanks can be made of metal, aluminum, plastic. Aluminum tanks are used to store diesel and gasoline fuel, steel tanks are used for gas. As for plastic tanks, they have becomevery popular in recent times due to the ease of production and molding. Due to the peculiarities of plastic to quickly acquire the desired shape, manufacturers create tanks of various design difficulties. In addition, this material is not subject to corrosion, well protects against leaks due to the use of various technologies (coating the inner surface with fluorine is one of them).

fuel filler cap

Fuel filler neck

The tank is filled through the neck, which is most often located above the rear fender of the right or left side. The experts explain that the left-hand side is ideal from a safety point of view, because when refueling, this reduces the chances of starting off before the filling nozzle is removed from the tank. So the driver has better control of the process.

The neck is connected to the tank through a pipeline, and it is located under a special cap of the fuel tank neck. This cover on older cars opens from the outside (that is, any passer-by can open it), but on modern cars, the cover opens from the passenger compartment. The most commonly used mechanical method of opening with a cable.

Fuel line

The supply of gasoline or diesel fuel to the engine power system is carried out through the output fuel line. A fuel pump is also used for this, which pumps gasoline from the tank into the engine power system. Fuel not consumed by the engine is returned to the tank. So gasoline constantly circulates through the fuel line: part of it is spent onthe engine, and the second - comes back.

Level control sensor

This sensor is found in all tanks and is part of the fuel pump. If the gasoline level goes down, the float goes down. This entails changing the resistance of the potentiometer connected to the float. As a result, the mains voltage drops, and the arrow on the dashboard indicates the change. So the driver sees how much gasoline is left in the tank.

how many liters fuel tank

Ventilation

One of the important systems is ventilation. The fact is that in the tank you must always maintain a pressure equal to atmospheric pressure, and ventilation is responsible for this. Modern machines are equipped with a closed tank ventilation system, which prevents a drop or increase in pressure inside it. If the pressure inside the container drops, then it can deform, and an increase in pressure in general can tear the tank apart. Considering that there is fuel inside, a lot of attention is paid to the implementation of an effective ventilation system.

When the fuel leaves the tank, the pressure in it drops, resulting in a vacuum. Thanks to the ventilation system, this effect is eliminated: the safety valve lets air in. This valve is located at the filler cap and can only flow in one direction.

When refueling, excess air enters the tank, causing gasoline vapors to form. These excesses are forced out by the ventilation system through a special pipeline. Also, gasoline vapors can be formed at elevated temperatures, which also entailsincrease in pressure. And only the ventilation system saves the tank from its complete rupture into pieces.

Conclusion

The fuel tank of a car is a fairly complex structure. Despite the apparent simplicity of the device, many different processes occur in the tank (evaporation, fuel oxidation), which must be taken into account when developing these tanks. But if you compare the device of the tank with a motor, or at least with a power system, then it will seem primitive.

Now you know how the fuel tank is arranged, what is its volume in cars and trucks, and why it is so small in small cars. Against the background of all this, the trend towards a decrease in tank capacity in modern small cars becomes clear.

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