The ZIL 131 three-axle truck, whose weight is designed for off-road and military use, was produced from 1966 to 2002. The car became one of the most recognizable Soviet "heavyweights", which were operated not only in the USSR, but also in neighboring countries.
The weight of the ZIL 131 allows the car to be classified as a truck with all-wheel drive and a front-mounted engine with a 6x6 wheel formula. Initially, the truck was designed as a cross-country vehicle. Its task is the transportation of goods and people, the towing of trailers on any kind of soil. In the model line, this car replaced the obsolete predecessor ZIL 157.
In terms of cross-country ability, the machine is not inferior to many tracked competitors. The updated truck has been significantly upgraded compared to its predecessor. It received an improved bridge, tires with 8 layers and a special tread pattern, the front-wheel drive became disengageable, and a single cardan shaft was placed on the transfer case.The car proved to be excellent in difficult road and climatic conditions, working stably and without fail in the temperature range from -45 to + 55 °C.
History of creation and development
When developing the ZIL 131 car, weight and cross-country ability came to the defining positions. Nevertheless, the designers of the Likhachev plant successfully coped with the task. The result is an inexpensive to manufacture, easy to maintain and the most unified military truck, in many respects similar to its civilian counterpart under the index 130.
It is worth noting that the version for the national economy was the first in the series. And only three years later the army version came out. It was equipped with the appropriate units required for military specifics. However, after five years, the car began to position itself as a simplified truck for civilian use. The classic 131st was mass-produced until 1986 for 20 years. Then an analogue with increased weight ZIL 131 N was developed. In addition, this version received an improved motor, better economy parameters, a synthetic awning and upgraded optics. Nevertheless, this modification was not widely used, despite the fact that it was also produced in UAZ.
Specifications and weight of the car ZIL 131
Parameters of the truck in question:
- length/width/height (mm) - 7040/2500/2510;
- wheel base (mm) - 3350/1250;
- clearance (under the front axle / in the area of the intermediate and rear drive) (mm)- 330/355;
- wheel track front and rear (mm) - 1820;
- minimum turning radius (mm) - 1002;
- tires - 12.00/20;
- dimensions of the loading platform (mm) - 3600/2320/569;
- loading height (mm) - 1430;
- empty weight ZIL 131 (equipped) (kg) - 5275 (6135);
- carrying capacity (highway/dirt road) (t) - 5, 0/3, 5;
- gross weight of truck with winch (kg) - 10425.
The load on the road from the mass of the vehicle is distributed as follows: front axle - 2750/3045 kgf, rear bogie - 3385/3330 kgf.
The serial onboard ZIL 131, the weight of which is indicated above, was equipped in the standard version with a four-stroke carburetor engine with 8 cylinders, with a volume of 6 liters. The nominal power is 150 "horses", the average fuel consumption is 36-39 l / 100 km. The engine belongs to the overhead valve category, has a liquid cooling type.
In 1986, they began to put on some modifications an improved power unit with a capacity of 150 horsepower. It differed from its predecessor in a cylinder block, the heads of which received screw-type intake valves and increased compression (7, 1). In addition, the motor has become more economical than the regular counterpart.
Diesels were rarely installed on the specified truck. For these purposes, the following types of motors were used:
- D-245.20. Engine with in-line placement of four cylinders, with a volume of 4.75 liters. Power - 81 l. s, fuel consumption - 18 l / 100 km.
- ZIL 0550. The power unit of our ownproduction with four cycles, a volume of 6.28 liters, a power rating of 132 liters. s.
- YAMZ-236. V-shaped engine with six cylinders, displacement of 11.1 liters, power of 180 "horses".
Frame part and suspension unit
The decent weight of the ZIL 131 required the use of a reliable and durable frame. It is made by stamping with riveting. The unit is equipped with channel-type spars interconnected by stamped transverse ribs. At the rear there is a hook with a rubber damping element, and at the front there is a pair of rigid towing hooks.
The front suspension is equipped with longitudinal springs, the front edges of which are fixed on the frame by means of pins and "ears". In this case, the rear ends of the knot are of a “sliding” type. The rear analogue is of a balancing configuration with a pair of longitudinal springs. Front dampers are double-acting hydraulic telescopes.
Steering and brakes
The truck in question is equipped with a power steering system placed in a common compartment with a control mechanism. The last element is a working pair with a screw and a nut on hinges, as well as a rack with gearing. The hydraulic booster pump is a vane type, driven by a crankshaft pulley belt. Longitudinal-transverse rods - with heads on spherical elements, equipped with crackers of a self-clamping variety.
Truck brakes - drum brakes with a pair of internal pads. The unclamping of parts is carried out using a cammechanism on all wheels. The diameter of the drum is 42 centimeters, the pads are 10 cm wide. When the brake system is activated, pneumatics are switched on, without axial separation. The parking block is mounted on the transmission shaft, also of drum type. Stopping distance at 60 km/h is approximately 25 meters.
Knowing the weight of the ZIL-131, you need to understand the type of system that controls the process of movement of such a large machine. The truck in question is equipped with a five-mode manual transmission. The block diagram includes a pair of inertial synchronizers. "Razdatka" is also mechanical, cardan transmission - open configuration.
Dry single-plate clutch aggregates with a damper of rotational vibrations of the spring variety. The element is located on the slave disk. The number of rubbing pairs is two, friction linings are made of asbestos composition. Some car models are equipped with a winch, additional worm gear, cable length - 65 meters.
Cab and body
The cab of the truck in question is of an all-metal configuration, for three seats with additional thermal insulation. The unit is heated in a liquid way, from the cooling system of the motor with a centrifugal fan. The heater is controlled by a special damper on the cab panel. Ventilation is provided by means of lowering windows, rotary windows and a channel in the right mudguard of the wing. Separate seats inside, driver's seatadjustable, cushions made of sponge rubber compound.
The car body ZIL 131 is a wooden platform with a metal border and transverse beams of the base. Of all the boards, only the rear element is folding. The cargo platform is designed to transport people. On the compartments of the side boards there are folding benches for 16 seats. In addition, there is an additional eight-seat bench located in the middle part of the body. The protective awning is installed on removable arcs.
On the basis of the universal chassis of the specified truck, various modifications of special vehicles were produced. Among them:
- Fire trucks.
- Fuel trucks and tankers.
- Oil Refuelers.
- Airport tractors with increased weight.
For military laboratories, workshops, radio stations, headquarters versions, standard universal, sealed bodies were used. They were equipped with special filtration systems that take in air masses from the outside and deliver them to the van, while disinfecting the interior.
KUNG from ZIL 131, dimensions and weight:
- length - 4.8 m;
- height - 1.95 m;
- width - 2.2 m;
- weight (dry/curb) - 1, 5/1, 8 t.
As many years of practice have shown, the ZIL 131 car has proved to be reliable, durable and easy to use.truck service. Its main advantage is a high cross-country ability, which guarantees the passage of eroded and clayey areas with a full load. An additional bonus is the presence of a reduction gear, and mechanical tire inflation allows you to adjust the pressure in the wheels, depending on the road surface and axle load.
In addition, drivers note a relatively comfortable cabin, easy access to the main parts, which increases the maintainability of the machine. Despite the fact that the serial production of this vehicle was completed many years ago, it can still be found in various sectors of the economy.