Electric locomotives ChS in the Soviet Union since the 1960s belonged to the category of the most powerful passenger traction locomotives. Their order from Czechoslovak partners is due to the need to increase the speed of trains. The six-axle novelties had a power of 2750 kW on the wheel rim, while the existing analogues developed no more than 2000 kW. Let's take a look at the specifications and features of these legendary railroad tractors.
Description of ChS-2 model
ChS electric locomotives of this series are equipped with a body of a welded configuration, representing a spatial truss with a lower main frame. As on ChS-1 and ChS-3, in the second modification, the traction and brake force is transformed to the body through pivot elements, which are rigidly fixed in the frame part and are equipped with ball joints from below. The specified design allows for a relative transverse shift of the body and bogie (30 millimeters in each direction).
Body weight onthe bogie part is transmitted by means of four sliding type side supports. They aggregate with transverse beams, leaf springs, pendulum suspensions. The force from the frame to the wheelset is transformed by means of rubber shock absorbers. The design of the axlebox assembly is identical to the predecessor series. In the connecting parts of the bogies there are longitudinal balancers, springs and spring-return mechanisms.
In order for the Czechoslovak electric locomotive ChS to fit better in curved sections, the ridges on the middle wheel pairs are made 10 millimeters thinner than the standard samples. The connection of traction motors is provided in three versions: parallel, series and parallel-series. Transitions from one connector of the motor part to another are made by shunting the units to the resistance.
If you are interested in the question of where the silver contacts are in the ES locomotive, pay attention to the contactor elements that are designed to switch resistance sections and change the connectors of traction motors. The winding of the last elements is identical to the domestic model VL-22i.
The switch has 48 positions, 40 of them are working, the rest are preparatory. To reduce the working electric field, a separate six-position regulator is used, equipped with two dozen contactors and an electro-pneumatic drive.
The electric locomotives under consideration are provided with four fan motors and a pair of compressor units. Controllersthe driver and assistant have a steering wheel, a non-removable reversing handle, a control drum with a removable handle, and a field weakening lever. As a brake system, the Dako design with Skoda cranes is used. The device of this unit is provided with a speed controller, which makes it possible to increase the braking effect from 80 to 130% with an increase in speed over 55 km / h. The maximum operating speed is 140 km / h, the calculated indicator is 60 km / h. Locomotive weight - 114 tons, with sand - 120 tons.
Electric locomotives series ChS-4
This railway tractor began to be created at the Skoda plant in Pilsen. At that time, the Czechoslovak plant was named after V. I. Lenin. Below are brief characteristics of the described mainline locomotive:
- consumed voltage in the contact network - 25 kV;
- power indicator - 5100 kWh;
- working/maximum speed parameter - 101 (160) km/h;
- torque - 17900 kgf;
- mass of a tractor with sand - 123 t.
The performance characteristics of electric locomotives ChS-4 differed significantly from their predecessors for the better, including from ChS-2. The body skin along with the driver's cab and truss frame are made of fiberglass. The original appearance of the locomotive was given by rounded cladding, pronounced buffer lights, a searchlight and panoramic windshields.
Spring suspension of the emergency electric locomotive of this series served to transfer force from the supporting part of the body tocarts with three axles. Frames were made by welding. The diameter of the wheel, equipped with an updated tire, was 1.25 meters. In terms of branded traction drive, the Skoda assembly is presented, which includes a shaft motor and cardan couplings. In addition, the system includes a traction gearbox with a one-sided gear ratio. For coupling with other train units, an automatic coupler of the "CA-3" configuration is provided.
There is a pair of current collectors (pantographs) on the end parts of the locomotive, providing aggregation with the contact network. The design of the power unit differs from analogues in that in it direct switching is performed in the transformer primary winding, in contrast to the series of the VL type. The "PS" regulator with 32 positions is responsible for switching.
Such a decision led to the supply of less current directly to the contact during switching. As a result, the weight of the switch has decreased, since the silver contacts of the ChS-4 electric locomotive have been replaced with copper counterparts. However, all insulation elements were also manufactured to take into account the full voltage of the mains contact.
Locomotives ChS-7 and ChS-8
These electric locomotives have the same design parameters, only the seventh version is focused on direct current, and the "eight" - on alternating current. Tractors are designed to transport fast trains on highways that have a maximum load, the voltage parameter isthe contact network is 25 thousand volts, the width of the railway track is 1520 mm
The CHS electric locomotive, the photo of which is shown below, differs from its counterpart in that it is designed to operate from a direct current contact network (3 kV), has a different window arrangement, as well as a configuration of equipment on the roof, a slightly elongated frame and wheeled carts. At the same time, ChS-7, due to the consumption of increased current strength and the presence of some restrictions, develops a lower power indicator. Unlike modifications ChS-2 and ChS-6, the locomotives under consideration are focused on driving elongated and heavy passenger trains at lower speeds.
To understand the difference between the latest types of electric locomotives, you need to consider the main parameters of the ChS-7 and ChS-8 locomotives. They are:
- length of one section - 16.87 m;
- height parameter on the body (on the current receiver in the lowered state) - 4, 45 (5, 12) m;
- maximum pantograph height - 6.8 m;
- electric locomotive width - 3.0 m;
- wheelbase - 10.95 m;
- section pivot base - 8.0 m;
- cart base - 2.95 m;
- wheel diameter - 1.25 m;
- radius of passable curves to minimum - 100 m;
- coupling weight - 172 t (2 x 86):
- load parameter per rail - 21.5 t;
- voltage - alternating (25 kV) or direct (3 kV) current;
- power of traction motors - 7200 kW;
- design/operational speed - 180 (103) km/h;
- maximum thrust/in continuous mode - 471/248 kN;
- rheostatic brake power indicator - about 7400 kW;
- reduction gear ratio - 2, 64;
- maximum power of the heating system for up to 28 cars - 1500 kW.