Reliable and maneuverable agricultural machinery is highly valued among farmers who need to cultivate fallen and medium fields. This is precisely what became the main reason for the high popularity of the famous Universal tractor, which is assembled only at the factories of Romania. Agricultural machinery is equipped with everything necessary for long-term work under high loads. This quality allows the "iron horse" to compete with newer and modernized models of tractors, which are widely distributed in the domestic equipment market.
The history of the tractor
Tractorul Brasov Factory, a popular Romanian agricultural equipment factory, first began producing agricultural units at the beginning of the last century. And from that moment, the history of the legendary Romanian tractor "Universal" begins. Produced in the late 50s of the XX century, agricultural machines were produced according to the developments of the Italian Fiat plant.
In 1948, the Romanian factory changedthe name of agricultural products, and began to produce tractors under the brand Uzina Tractorul Brasov, or in short UTB. Among all models, the 445 Universal tractor deserves special attention.
Having been on the market for almost 10 years, the model in question was replaced by more modern tractors with additional features. However, this particular tractor is still admired by domestic and foreign farmers.
Purpose of technique
The Romanian tractor "Universal-445" is an agricultural machinery that is adapted to various off-road conditions. The "Iron Horse" is considered a compact and structurally simple technique that can be subjected to high loads. This is due to the fact that in the event of a breakdown, there will be no special problems with repairs - this indicates good maintainability. Prices for tractor parts are affordable.
The model under consideration is capable of doing the following:
- Cultivation (surface tillage).
- Harrowing (loosening the surface of the soil).
- Hilling (sprinkling wet soil to plants).
- Interrow tillage.
In fact, agricultural machinery is capable of performing various operations with the earth, including loading and transporting loose soil, sand and even snow. In the latter case, a trailer is attached to the "steel plowman", which is designed for high carrying capacity. Tractor "Universal" with factory index 445 is consideredoften used in the construction industry, in housing and communal services, in road repair, as well as in the transportation of various materials and goods.
Features of operation
Tractor "Universal" is able to maximize its qualities when working on a territory of 10 acres or more. According to the feedback from farmers, the equipment can literally perform any work. There are certain tolerance limits that should be taken into account, within which it is recommended to operate this powerful machine. Land area can be more than 30 acres. The largest area that the device is able to process at a time is about ten hectares. A rear-wheel drive tractor is good for lighter jobs. For example, when transporting small loads or mowing lawns.
If necessary, the tractor can be used as a loader - for this, hydraulics are provided in its design. Due to the presence of special mounts, modern agricultural equipment and trailers can be used with the Universal tractor.
Last but not least, the reason for the high popularity of technology was the decent design parameters, as for the unit of the last century. Let's highlight the main technical characteristics of the Universal tractor:
- Integrated 2-cylinder water jacket cooled engine;
- motor power is 45 hp. p.;
- working cylinder diameter - 9.6 cm;
- mechanical synchronizedgearbox;
- fuel tank capacity - 50-55 liters;
- fuel type - diesel.
High performance is complemented by a fairly low fuel consumption, as for high-quality agricultural machinery. With increased loads, this model consumes about 5.5 liters of fuel per hour of operation, which makes the use of the tractor budgetary.
About motor technology
Tractor "Universal" in its design has a compact and economical diesel engine. The engine is equipped with liquid cooling, which reduces the risk of overheating of the mechanism in the summer, and also minimizes the increase in temperature of the main components of the tractor under increased load. It is important to note that the unit shows good traction characteristics in operation.
It is important that the engine is ideally suited to work in the winter, when temperatures can reach up to -20…-25 degrees Celsius. Due to this, agricultural machinery is in great demand in the northern regions of Russia. In addition, the Universal tractor develops a speed of more than 30 km / h, which is a good indicator at low power. Distinguishing dynamics allows you to quickly move between work areas.
Overall dimensions of equipment
Romanian tractor "Universal" has a compact overall dimensions of the body. Thanks to this, it increases the convenience of work even in hard-to-reach areas. An important feature is the shortened wheelbase,which made it possible to reduce the turning radius of the tractor. Tractor "Universal" has the ability to turn around without making a wide radius - this is very important, for example, in cramped storage areas, or in the presence of a large number of obstacles that must be constantly bypassed. In addition, it is important to note that the model under consideration has a sensitive steering wheel, which is endowed with optimal feedback.
How the tractor moves on rough roads
The chassis of the "Universal" tractor moves well on rough roads, by the standards of units of this price category. This is made possible by a simplified chassis assembly layout, increased ground clearance and minimal body overhangs. Regardless of the tractor configuration, it is possible to use rear or all-wheel drive.
Besides this, in the secondary market of agricultural machinery there is often a modification of the tractor with the function of switching between full and rear-wheel drive. For example, when driving on dirt or field roads, you can select the first mode. And rear-wheel drive can be used while working on a flat road.
In some cases, on the agricultural machinery market, you can find iron horse models without a cab. But, basically, the Universal tractor has a roomy and, at the same time, small-sized cab. Inside it has everything you need for comfortable work. Convenient access to the cabin is provided by a wide door opening. High security is ensured by the presencesteps with relief surface. It should be noted that the model under consideration has a wide glazing area, which allows the operator to have a good view of the working area. This is also facilitated by thin body pillars and a high landing of the driver's seat. The tractor driver has the ability to adjust the workplace to suit his height.
The normal microclimate in the cabin is provided by the side windows in the summer, and by the heating system in the winter. The controls are simple, clear, and ergonomically placed on the front of the panel.