The UTD-20 engine is installed on some models of military equipment. With some modifications, it is also used on trucks. Especially often it is installed on KamAZ trucks. This is a popular type of motors, which is also used on heavy special equipment. Specifications, typical breakdowns and other features of the presented engine will be discussed below.
History of Creation
Starting the review of the UTD-20 engine, it should be noted that this engine has a long history. Thus, during the war, the V-2 diesel engine was put into mass production at the Barnaultransmash plant. Then, in the 50-60s of the last century, a series of unified tank engines was developed on its basis, which were called UTD.
The main in this series was a four-stroke type UTD engine, which had a dimension of 15 x 15. This feature made it possible to increase the power of the cylinder,rotational speed. The height of the V-type has also been reduced. The design provides for a single-component crankcase. It is equipped with rolling bearings. This also increased its rigidity. Connecting rods were fixed in the crank mechanism, which made it possible to reduce the longitudinal dimensions of the motor.
The configuration of the UTD combustion chamber has changed compared to the B-2, but the valve mechanism has remained the same. It was launched using gears of a cylindrical configuration. They have become easier to make. At the same time, such elements of the system have proven their high reliability, compared with beveled ones. The designers of the presented enterprise have developed prototypes of engines for 12, 10, 8 and 6 cylinders. Further modifications were created with a large number of these elements. Moreover, both supercharged and naturally aspirated varieties were developed.
The technical process for assembling the UTD-20 engine has undergone a number of changes. As a result, modifications with a power of 150-1200 kW appeared. In this case, the specific fuel consumption was 240 g/kWh. The engines were installed on armored self-propelled vehicles. Their period of operation was at least 1000 hours. In deposited commercial versions, this figure was 15-20 thousand hours.
Use and upgrade
The 6-cylinder modification became the most demanded in the series of engines presented. It has found application in infantry combat vehicles in BMP-2 and BMP 1 vehicles. The UTD-20 engine was mass-produced at factories in Czechoslovakia, in Barnaul and Tokmak.
A ten-cylinder diesel four-stroke was installed oninfantry vehicle BMP-3. Research in the field of development of the presented motors has led to the emergence of multi-purpose high-speed motors. Their power varied in the range of 74-965 kW. These variations are designed for installation in commercial vehicles. They can also be installed in armored cars. They meet a number of requirements.
The production of multi-purpose types of UTD has significant prospects, since the manufacture of weapons in modern conditions is declining. On the armored personnel carrier it was necessary to reduce the space. Therefore, diesel engines began to fade into the background. Scientific research was carried out in the field of a gas turbine engine. In military equipment, he replaced the diesel UTD.
The development of gas turbine engines began to develop actively also thanks to the great experience in creating such equipment for aviation. Also, specific successes in the tank industry led to the development of this direction. Problems such as engine braking, engine operation in dusty conditions, etc. have been solved.
Gas turbine engines replaced the UTD-20 engine due to its smaller size. Also, they, in comparison with diesel engines, do not need a bulky cooling system, they are easier to start. In terms of power, the new type of motors also surpasses gas turbine engines. However, the latter are more expensive. Therefore, today UTD diesel engines with some modifications are installed on trucks and heavy special equipment. Featuring high reliability, such engines have gained popularity and recognition amongcar owners.
To understand why the presented equipment is in such demand, you need to consider the technical description of the UTD-20 engine. This motor is famous for its reliability. Its design provides for liquid cooling. Fuel injection is direct. At the same time, the presented unit is easy to operate. It has a long service life. Another advantage is the unpretentiousness of the fuel on which the system can operate.
The use of rolling bearings instead of plain bearings on the crankshaft is a distinctive feature of the presented unit. This technical solution made it possible to simplify the operation of the motor. It has become more reliable.
Considering the characteristics of the UTD-20 engine, it should be noted that the presented power unit has a working volume of 15.9 liters. This gives the diesel installation excellent traction qualities. Therefore, the motor was used on tank vehicles and is now installed on trucks. With minimal changes, this engine was installed on KamAZ and other special vehicles. Considering the specifications for the assembly of UTD-20 engines, as well as recommendations for its repair, one can note the simplicity of this process.
A feature of the presented motor is also the absence of a diesel fuel drain system. It does not have a return line, which is used in most power units of this type. The disadvantage of the system is the lack of a starting system in the winter.This complicates the operation of the vehicle. At this time, there may be problems associated with the freezing of diesel fuel. In the subsequent modification of the 20C1 motor, a similar system was already provided. This made it possible to operate the motor at temperatures up to -20 ° C. Here, the designers provided for the presence of nozzleless flare heating of the incoming air flow.
Because the motor is made of high-quality metal alloy, it can be used under high load conditions. The motor is resistant to overheating.
To understand the features of the presented power unit, you need to pay attention to the technical characteristics of the UTD-20 engine. Its cylinder block is made of cast iron. The type of power supply system in the presented system is V-shaped. At 2600 rpm. the engine has a power of 300 hp. s.
The system has 6 cylinders with 2 valves each. The piston stroke is 150 mm, as is the bore. The compression ratio is 15.8. The unit is able to run on DL fuel (in summer), DZ (in winter), TS-1. Designed for liquid cooling.
Considering the technical description of the UTD-20 engine, it is worth noting that it consumes no more than 175 liters of fuel per hour.
Overall dimensions (LxWxH) are 790x1150x742 mm. The power unit weighs 665 kg. The manufacturer guarantees the operation of the device for 500 hours. These are the main characteristics of the presented device. They define itscope and operation features.
The system uses grease M-16IHP-3, MT-16p or MTZ-10p. Oil at full refueling requires about 58 liters. In this case, the consumption of the lubricant component is a maximum of 10.9 g / kWh. In this case, the number of revolutions of the shaft is 2200 rpm.
The system has two types of start:
- Basic. Compressed air is used.
- Optional. Electric start is used.
The engine has an automatic water protection system. Using a manual actuator, the valve is set to its original position.
The UTD-20 base engine has several subsequent modifications. It became the basis for the development of a number of other power units. One of the most successful improvements was the engine with the provided system for the combined drain of fuel from the injector system. This power unit was marked UTD-20S1. It also had nozzleless flare heating of the incoming air flow. Also, the design was supplemented with a two-section fuel filter. It was one of the most successful improvements. The engine shown was first put into service in 1985.
The presence of a return line in the presented model made it possible to fully prepare it for the winter. For this, summer fuel was drained from the UTD-20S1 engine. It also became possible to carry out high-quality conservation of the power unit. Therefore, the scope of this motor was much wider.
The presented modification also hasfuel heating system. Therefore, it was used even in winter. However, the presented modification had no other significant differences. However, it turned out to be more versatile and easy to use.
You should also pay attention to the technical description of the UTD-20 and 5D20 engines. The last of these power plants also has a number of distinctive features. So, the 5D20 model received cooled-type exhaust manifolds in its system. They are made from a special aluminum alloy. The manifolds are designed with cavities for antifreeze.
It is also worth noting that the 5D20 power unit is provided with a generator cooling system using an electric fan. It is specially installed in the design for this purpose. The base model UTD-20 instead had a drive unit to perform cooling. The new model does not have a breather. In this case, the crankcase ventilation process is performed through the vehicle's oil tank.
The UTD-20 engine has several other modifications. They are less known and have a limited scope. So, the 3D20 model is used on ships. It runs on diesel and has subspecies:
- C2 - the design provides for an outboard water pump. There is no power take-off shaft in the design.
- AC2 (or 3D23) - does not have a PTO and an outboard pump in its system.
- BC2 - both a pump and a power take-off shaft are provided in the design.
- BC2-1 - with outboard water pump, but without PTO.
- 3D23-01 - frompump but no shaft.
- 3D23-02 - there is a shaft and a pump.
Another modification is the 1D20 power unit. This is a motor designed for mobile or stationary power stations. It is produced on the basis of the 5D20 power unit. The presented modification differs from the latter in the features of setting the speed controller. This is an all-mode high-pressure fuel pump unit, which is designed to operate at a constant speed of 1500 pcs / min.
The presented modification is inferior to the base model in terms of power. Its nominal value is 150 liters. With. At the same time, the maximum value of the presented indicator reaches 208 liters. With. The design does not provide for the presence of a low-voltage generator.
The UTD-29 model became the next generation of engines of the presented type. This power unit is installed in the BMP-3.
Features of operation
Users should know how to properly operate the presented power plant, how to carry out repairs, as well as the assembly sequence of the UTD-20 engine. In order for its work to be trouble-free, you need to follow some rules. The basic operating requirements are as follows:
- starting the engine only in accordance with the rules for winter and summer use;
- during operation, it is necessary to control the readings of measuring instruments, maintaining the temperature of antifreeze at a given level;
- monitor the oil temperature, periodically monitor its amount in the system;
- avoidprolonged operation of the motor at reduced thermal conditions, its warming up;
- you need to use fuel, lubricant recommended by the engine manufacturer;
- refueling of diesel fuel and oil occurs only with a closed jet;
In addition, the owner of the vehicle must carry out engine maintenance.
The technical specifications for the repair of the UTD-20 engine indicate that maintenance of the power unit system is carried out at regular intervals. The work that is carried out during this procedure is relatively simple. This fact greatly simplifies the use of the motor.
Once every 1000 hours the oil is changed. When the unit has operated for 3000 hours, the fuel system should be cleaned. You will also need to open the cylinder head. The valve system at this stage requires high-quality cleaning.
No other service work required. If the motor will not be used in the winter, the fuel must be drained, as well as other technical fluids. However, this is difficult to do if there is no return line on the motor. It is better to seek help from professionals.
In addition to maintenance, sometimes more serious maintenance of the motor is required. Overhaul of the UTD-20 engine is carried out in the presence of certain malfunctions.
If the engine does not start, itdue to a malfunctioning fuel system. It is necessary to determine whether fuel enters the cylinders. After that, the engine is dismantled and a deep diagnosis is carried out.
If a leak is detected in the valve cover seal area, this area must be disassembled and the gland replaced.
If a lot of oil is consumed during the operation of the power unit, it smokes, this malfunction may be caused by piston rings that have burned out. This results in increased oil consumption.
Engine power has noticeably decreased, can't keep up the speed well. The most common cause of such a malfunction is a breakdown of the fuel pressure pump. He can not supply fuel in the right amount. The pump cannot be repaired. Therefore, a new pump is being purchased.
Some drivers seek to increase engine power. But the possibilities in this case are significantly limited. The motor is forced to the maximum. Replacing the injection pump, boring the cylinder block will negatively affect the durability and reliability of the system.