2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:36
To reduce the burden on a person during repair and other types of work on the roads, special vehicles were developed and manufactured. The grader belongs to such vehicles. It is an all-in-one tool that helps road builders and builders get the job done faster and more efficiently.
What is this?
The word grader or grade, which is used in the name of the car, in translation from English means "leveling" or "leveling". That is why a grader is a special vehicle (rarely a towing device), which is designed to measure slopes, road surface irregularities (soil, crushed stone, sand, etc.), as well as give it the necessary shape.
Differences between a grader and other special equipment
Sometimes many people mistakenly believe that a grader is a special machine that looks like a scraper or a bulldozer. For example, in English, road scraper and grader are considered synonymous. Although this is extremely false. With the help of a scraper, it is impossible to profile areas and slopes on roads, as well as perform a number of other operations. They areare used only for cutting small layers of soil.
The same applies to such special equipment as a bulldozer. With its help, you can only clear the road or construction site from excess soil and debris, as well as dig a pit.
Design and principle of operation
This technique is equipped with special blades, which are fixed on the frame of the machine itself. These grader working bodies are adjustable in two directions (horizontal and vertical), so you can achieve the desired level of alignment. The driver from the cab activates the dumps of the vehicle using hydraulic or mechanical control. But there are also graders equipped with auto platforms that allow them to move independently.
For road repairs, modified special equipment is used (the grader is supplemented by special working bodies, scarifiers). Such aggregates can, among other things, loosen the top layer of the road surface.
Types of graders depending on design features
It was already said earlier that, in addition to standard graders, there are also modified models that differ from each other both in power and separately installed devices.
Depending on the design features, such special equipment can be:
- Self-propelled (motor graders mentioned earlier). In addition to the autoplatform, scarifiers and the main working bodies, suchmachines are equipped with snow plows, dozer blades and their extensions, which are powered by an engine with mechanical or hydraulic control.
- Semitrailer. In these types of graders, most of the load is distributed on the conveyor frames. Such a unit is more maneuverable than a trailed grader, but also not as productive. In addition, another disadvantage of such machines is that their drawbar pull in most cases does not exceed 10 tons.
- A trailed grader that is used as an accessory for a tractor. To fully use such a device, you need two people - a tractor driver and a grader. Such devices have low performance and maneuverability, but show excellent results in off-road conditions. In addition, trailers are cheaper than self-propelled units.
Types of graders depending on technical characteristics
Self-propelled vehicles also have their own classification, as well as individual trailers. Yes:
- Light grader. The technical characteristics of such a machine allow it to be used only for road repair. The engine power of a light motor grader is only 70-75 hp. s.
- Medium with engine power up to 100 hp s.
- Heavy (from 160 to 180 HP). Such special equipment can be used both for road repair and in the construction industry.
- Super-heavy motor grader that can reach more than 400 hp.s.
Scope of application
Grader is a unit that can be used in almost any industry. For example, they are used in the road construction industry for geodetic measurements, area profiling and slope profiling.
Besides, graders are used in agriculture. With these devices, you can level the soil after the work of earthmoving machines.
In winter, the grader is an excellent solution for clearing streets and roads from snow.
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