The domestic truck MAZ-516 entered serial production in 1965, it was part of the updated 500 series from the designers of the Minsk Automobile Plant. The upgraded vehicle was equipped with a cab over the engine, received the optimal combination of payload at that time in relation to the dead weight of the vehicle. In addition, the updated YaMZ-236 engine with a power of 180 "horses" provided a good indicator of fuel economy. Consider the characteristics, features of this technique, as well as modifications released on its basis.
Minsk Automobile Plant was rightfully considered the leader in the production of domestic heavy diesel trucks. For example, MAZ-516 is capable of operating on roads of the first category with a possible axle load of ten tons. This indicator fully complies with the provisions of GOST-9314-59, which allows a load on a twin bogie of up to 18 tons (taking into account the use of a coupling device).
The duties of the chief designer of the plant at that time were performed by M.V. Vysotsky, who set himself the goal of producing a serial modernized car every five years, and every ten years -new modification. And he did it well. After the release of the 500 series, developers began to figure out the features of the updated version, taking into account user feedback and operational features. Many samples remained in the form of prototypes, however, some versions went very well into the series.
Vysotsky understood that transportation volumes are growing every year, and this leads to the development of appropriate transportation equipment. To solve the problem, he decides to launch several types of trucks and road trains with an increased load capacity at the same time. Emphasis was placed precisely on such a vision, since it made it possible to ensure the efficiency of transportation in the shortest possible time.
Already at the end of 1965, the first modifications of the updated series were developed, as well as prototypes of road trains with increased payload. In this line, the following options have become the most popular and promising:
- Two-axle tractor truck 504B.
- Three-axle truck with additional supporting rear axle MAZ-516.
- Vehicle with increased load capacity code 510.
- Three-axle model for MAZ-514 road train.
- Tractor for aggregation with trailer MAZ-515.
Let's consider these vehicles in more detail.
Since a further increase in the carrying capacity parameter assumed the operation of vehicles with additional axles, trucks with additional axles were included in the new category.three loaded elements. At the initial stage, certain difficulties arose with this, often of a bureaucratic nature. Spiteful critics referred to the fact that the Minsk plant was not capable of this direction. In addition, "three-wheelers" were already produced at KrAZ. At the same time, the opponents did not take into account that a truck main tractor and an off-road truck are not the same thing. Despite the fact that this direction was developing with difficulty, it was possible to defend it.
A third support axle was introduced on the MAZ-516 car, which made it possible to significantly increase the carrying capacity. The first models are designed for 15 tons, more advanced ones could transport 3-5 tons more, and this is without a tow hitch. In the road train, the figure increased to 24 tons due to the use of a special trailer. In order to effectively use the declared characteristics, it was planned to equip the car with a power unit with a capacity of 200-240 horsepower.
The truck in question had a weight utilization factor of 1.6 tons, taking into account its own weight. This was a decent indicator for a Soviet car of that time. The additional axle MAZ-516 made it possible to use traction more efficiently, increase the carrying capacity parameter, reduce the axle load, sparing the road surface.
The element was equipped with a hydraulic lifting device, controlled from the cab using pneumatics. With an increase in carrying capacity, fuel consumption increased, which contributed to the installation of an additional fuel tank. Another importantthe task was to save fuel and rubber when moving empty. We achieved this by hanging the rear axle.
Pilot specimens were assembled already in 1965. Soon, the plant began full-fledged tests of the machine in question. Most trucks were tested with YaMZ-236 engines. Optimal refinement of the car to the declared characteristics required a certain time. The final version, after a number of improvements, was again presented at interdepartmental tests in 1968. The first industrial batch began to be assembled in 1969
Given that the engine power was not enough to work with the MAZ trailer, the first modifications under the index 516 were operated in single mode, with a load capacity of 14/14, 5 tons. A year later, they designed and released a unified model 516A based on 500A.
A modernized cab was installed on the MAZ-516 versions "A" and "B". It appeared already five years after the release of the basic version. An engine with a power of 240 "horses" was used as a power unit, which increased the carrying capacity parameter to 16 tons, and it became possible to aggregate with a trailer. An industrial batch with enhanced characteristics (516 "B") was released in 1973. The final modernization of the truck in question took place in 1977, when the car received a cab from version 5335.
The first 516th modifications did not have a posted mechanism of the third axle, they were equipped with reduced sides of the loading platform. This model was replaced by the 6301 series, inmodern interpretation, it received the index 6310. Next, consider the parameters and features of other representatives of the "Mazov" line 500.
This flatbed truck with increased carrying capacity is able to aggregate with a MAZ-5205A trailer on intercity traffic. It is worth noting that prototypes (dump trucks with a single cab) were developed under the specified code, which did not go into mass production. Sometimes the 510th model is mistakenly confused with another representative of the large MAZ-500G family, which has an extended base.
Nevertheless, the cars differed not only in platforms, but also in weight. The 500G version is focused on transporting long materials or was used as a chassis for mounting a variety of superstructures, including a refrigerated booth. Model 510 is designed for operation as part of a road train, with semi-trailers on rolling carts with a pair of axles or three similar elements. In the first version, a total load capacity of 24 tons was allowed, in the second case - 27 tons. The serial production of the modification was postponed until a sufficient number of suitable engines were produced, since the YaMZ-238 for 240 “horses” was only being mastered by production.
Auto MAZ, the photo of which is presented below, can be attributed to the progenitors of the second generation analogues, known under the index 53352. This truck received the final parameters and real features only in 1973. The vehicle was equipped with a YaMZ-238E engine with a capacity of 270 horsepower. The motor aggregated with a gearbox for eightmodes and trailer type MAZ-8378. The car went into mass production only in the winter of 1976. A year later, a cab of the 5335 series was installed on the main tractor. The MAZ-53361 came to replace this modification, and then the modern version 5340.
Belarusian car MAZ-516 became the direct successor of version 514. The predecessor is a three-axle mainline tractor designed to work with a trailer of the 5205A series, with a drive for two bogies. The carrying capacity potential of this equipment as part of a road train was 32 tons, with a total weight of 48.7 tons. At the same time, the middle bridge was made transitional. It was originally planned to equip the modification with engines with a power of 250-270 "horses". This idea faded into the background, since the Yaroslavl Engine Plant did not have time to master the mass production of the YaMZ-238, and the 236th version was objectively not enough for the specified road train.
According to unconfirmed sources, the truck still left for testing with an updated engine. Other points of interest regarding this vehicle:
- The rear bogie suspension on early versions was Timken/Hendrickson type but failed testing.
- Modernization of the machine took place in 1968-69. The chassis has undergone a significant alteration.
- The designers have changed the placement of fuel tanks, batteries and "spare tires", which were originally located on the truck MAZ-516 and MAZ-500.
In 1971, the final decision was made on the layout of the consideredvehicle. The truck tractor was equipped with a 240-horsepower YaMZ-238 engine, although its parameters were still not enough for the efficient operation of the road train. In this regard, the carrying capacity of the equipment was reduced to 23 tons. Other features include an eight-speed gearbox, a thru-axle and a balancer on the rear bogie suspension block.
For the period of production of the first production batch in 1974, the car was equipped with a power unit with enhanced performance (YaMZ-238E). The motor received a turbine boost, increasing in power to 270 horsepower. The cab version 5335 was not installed on this model, since the development of the 5336 series was actively underway. The truck in question was replaced by modifications 6303 and 6312.
What is the MAZ-515?
This truck passed all tests in parallel with the 514th version. The weight of the MAZ-515 was 46.7 tons with an estimated load capacity of 30 tons. The truck tractor was supposed to be compared with a three-axle semi-trailer 2.5-PP, but the car was sent for testing with an analogue of type 941. The power unit was supposed to have a force of at least 320 “horses”. Unfortunately, there were no such engines available. Therefore, the real prototype of this version was developed only in the early seventies of the past century.
The serial starting batch came out under the index 515B, equipped with a YaMZ-238N engine with a blower with a capacity of 300 horsepower. Since they were counting on a slightly higher level, the carrying capacity of the machine was reduced to 25 tons. Despite the fact that the MAZ car, the photo of which is presented inarticle, began to be mass-produced, work to improve the layout did not stop.
The developers have upgraded fuel tanks, batteries, remote air filters and receiver mechanism. In addition, work was underway to improve lighting fixtures, equip the cabin with air conditioning and other devices for comfort and ease of maintenance. For example, in 1974, a tractor with a cab type 5335 was presented at an honorary exhibition. It is noteworthy that this happened three years before the serial production of the MAZ-5335.
It is worth noting that the front springs of the MAZ in question were strengthened, an updated dashboard was installed in the cab, adjustable seats with springs, and a soft finish with thermal and noise insulation of a new generation was carried out. In addition, the workplace was equipped with curtains on the windows, a dining table, visors against sunlight, a heater, and handrails. After the transition to the 5336 family, followers under the index 6422 and 6430 began to enter the series.
Minsk automakers had other hints about the "three-axle". For example, the search version for aggregation with a trailer 5205. The width of the MAZ remained the same, and the gross weight increased to 25 tons, taking into account the weight of a pair of front steering axles. This design has become a trendsetter in the relevant segment. The trunk tractor in question is partially copied from the German model Mercedes-Benz LP333.
The main task facing the creators of the 520 series was to increase the parametersload capacity of the road train without increasing the effort on the regular front axle. Nevertheless, with an allowable 10-ton load per element, it was not entirely possible to significantly increase the same indicator on the saddle. At the same time, the design of the car has become much more complicated compared to the simple and practical analogue of the 504 modification. There were also some negative points regarding the weight distribution and handling of the vehicle.
After several stages of testing, the designers abandoned further development in this direction, not seeing the prospects for development. They turned out to be right, since such studies were also quickly leveled abroad, at least in the form in which they were positioned at that time.
Trucks MAZ-516 (see photo below) and MAZ-520 became the first step on the way to full-fledged three-axle tractors capable of transporting large loads. They were designed in 1965 in the form of an onboard platform vehicle and a truck tractor. The scheme with three axles on a pair of drive axles at the rear was perfectly suited to domestic roads with low branching and poor quality, which, during testing, additionally convinced the designers of the correctness of the decision.
Experimental variants and prototypes
Initially, a machine with MAZ-504V dimensions was positioned as a prototype. She was able to aggregate with a semi-trailer type 5205 with a carrying capacity of 18 tons. As a power plant, it was supposed to use a newYaMZ-238A engine with a capacity of 215 horsepower. It is not known for certain whether this project was implemented.
After that, the idea under consideration with such an index appeared only in 1969. According to the documentation, the load capacity of the road train increased to 20 tons, and the updated YaMZ-238 engine received a capacity of 240 “horses”. Approximately three years the corresponding tests lasted, and in 1972 the production of this truck was put on the conveyor. The developers have released the first experimental batch of machines. However, the car never made it to international destinations. This was due to insufficient power and carrying capacity. The scope of operation was limited to intercity transportation.
The next stage of modernization of the truck tractor was carried out in 1977. The cab of the 5335 series appeared in the equipment. In the same period, attempts were made to improve the truck based on the MAZ-5428. The follower was supposed to get more power (280 hp) due to the YaMZ-238P supercharged engine, which was aggregated with an eight-speed gearbox. The load on the coupling device also increased, amounting to 33 tons in full with the tractor. The idea was not implemented, remaining in experimental development of prototypes.
Besides, the plant was actively working on the design of the MAZ-5336 series. Soon a new three-axle main tractor of the 6422 family appeared. Not far off was the two-axle modification 5432, which became the main obstacle to the release of the 5428 version. By and large, this variation became the progenitor of the moderntruck tractors in the corresponding segment (MAZ-5440).
It is worth noting that the chief designer of the Minsk plant, Mikhail Vysotsky, remained true to his program, with some allowance for the economic transformations in the Soviet Union. Together with the team, he created a separate direction at the plant, concerning the development and creation of main trucks with increased payload. The MAZ 500 series family is an additional proof of this. And even though a completely new modification was not created in 1975, the plant released a transitional version 5335, and already in 1978 a new variation 6422 rolled off the assembly line. Vysotsky's followers also actively took up the development of Mikhail Stepanovich's undertakings. As a result, original models of the "Perestroika" type and analogues appeared. Starting from the 500th version, the Minsk plant has created three generations of cabs with quite good characteristics, which is worthy of respect.
Parameters in numbers
Below are the average technical indicators inherent in the MAZ-516B series truck:
- length/width/height - 8, 5/2, 5/2, 65 m;
- capacity - 3 people;
- load capacity - 16.5 t;
- curb weight - 8.8 tons;
- feature - additional lifting axle MAZ-516;
- wheelbase - 4.57 m;
- clearance - 27 cm;
- maximum speed - 95 km/h;
- fuel consumption per 100 km - 30 l;
- type of power unit - YaMZ-238 diesel engine with an overhead arrangement of eight cylinders;
- working volume - 14.8 l;
- ultimatepower - 240 HP;
- clutch assembly - two discs with dry pneumatic power off;
- Checkpoint - mechanics for five or eight modes;
- steering - screw mechanism on circulating joints and gear rack with hydraulic booster;
- tires - 11/20.20.
The three-axle truck in question differed from its competitors by having a remote third axle that can be raised or lowered as needed. This design feature made it possible to increase the carrying capacity of the machine without exceeding the permissible loads on the road surface. When empty, the tractor saved fuel and drove with increased maneuverability. The specified vehicle was the first representative of Soviet heavy equipment with a similar system. Since spare parts for MAZ trucks were mostly interchangeable, there were no problems with repair and maintenance. Despite the fact that the indicated modifications were replaced by updated modern versions, the units of that period can still be found in domestic open spaces.