Car chassis - what is it?

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Car chassis - what is it?
Car chassis - what is it?

Any vehicle, regardless of its type and purpose, consists of three main parts: engine, body and chassis. The chassis of the car is a system consisting of assembled parts of the running gear, transmission and control mechanism. It is one of the most important parts of the vehicle, as it allows for the perception and transmission of all the forces that act on it while driving.

Chassis functions

The undercarriage suspension elements reduce loads and compensate for vibrations when driving on bumpy roads and off-road. The subframe allows you to install a body, engine and other units on the chassis. The front and rear axles transmit rotational movement through the wheels and thus ensure the movement of the car.

car chassis
car chassis

The first cars produced in the last century had some difference from those that today drive on the roads. All cars - both cars and trucks - used to have a frame on which all units and components (body, transmission, engine, etc.) were installed. Over time, the frame chassis of the car remained only with trucks and buses. In passenger cars, the functions of the frame began to performbody.

Chassis classification

Thus, two different vehicle chassis layouts can be distinguished.

  • Frame chassis, which generally consists of several strong beams on which all vehicle components are mounted. This design allows the vehicles to carry large loads and easily cope with various dynamic loads.

Chassis diagrams
Chassis diagrams
  • Bearing body. In pursuit of lighter weight passenger cars, all frame functions were redefined to bodywork. This frame does not allow you to move large loads, but at the same time provides more comfort and speed.
Chassis Diagram Meaning
Chassis Diagram Meaning

Depending on the purpose of the car, the following types of structures can be used:

  • spar;
  • spinal;
  • peripheral;
  • fork-spinal;
  • lattice.

Truck chassis

Spar frames are considered the most common. They are two longitudinal beams connected by crossbars. The shape of such beams can be completely different: tubular, X- or K-shaped. In the most loaded part, the frame has an enlarged channel section. The parallel scheme of spars (beams are located at an equal distance along the entire length of the chassis) is used on trucks. In off-road cars, side members can be used, which havesome divergence of the axes in both the horizontal and vertical planes.

What is a chassis
What is a chassis

The spinal frame is a single supporting longitudinal beam, on which the crossbars are attached. Often this beam has a circular cross section, so that it can accommodate transmission elements. Such a frame provides greater torsion resistance than spars. Also, the use of a backbone-type chassis implies the use of an independent suspension of all wheels.

The fork-spine frame has a branching of the longitudinal beam in the rear or front. That is, it combines spars and a spinal beam.

Other types of chassis frame are not used for trucks.

Other meanings of the term

In addition to the definition above, the word "chassis" can be used to describe self-propelled vehicles designed to install various machines and mechanisms. Also, this term is used for that part of the aircraft that is used to move along the airfield, take off and land. As in the case of the chassis of a car, this part softens the shocks and loads during the ground movement of aircraft. Aircraft landing gear, unlike automobiles, can be designed with wheels, skis or floats.

Often the meaning of the word chassis is confused with the concept of driving a car. The misinterpretation of the terms is due to the fact that they refer to almost the same part of the vehicle. Car owners freely say that their car has a 4x2 chassis. But at the same time it shouldunderstand that 4x2 is just a layout diagram from which you can find out the number of driving wheels, but no more. The same thing as a chassis has already been said above. Even though wheels and drive are part of the chassis system, it is inappropriate to use the term for such a narrow description only.

Types of pendants

The car chassis can have different types of suspension:

a) dependent:

  • on longitudinal springs;
  • with twin guide levers;
  • with two trailing arms;
  • with drawbar;

b) independent.

Suspensions are equipped with levers, gaskets, shock absorbers and springs. The main purpose of this vehicle assembly is to absorb vibrations and vibrations while driving. The front and rear suspensions are different because the design of the steerable wheels requires more complex components.