Categories of a driver's license - the type of transport that the owner of this document is allowed to drive. To date, there are six main and four additional categories. There are also special varieties that allow you to drive vehicles with a trailer.
A category B driver's license allows you to drive cars. At the same time, not allowing to drive buses or fixed-route taxis. There is a separate category of rights for such modes of transport. The driver can only drive those vehicles, the types of which are listed in his certificate. If these requirements are not met, he faces a fine of up to fifteen thousand rubles.
What does the driver's license say?
The new type of driver's license contains full information about their owner. The certificate is often used as a document that can confirm the identity of the driver. It contains the followinginfo:
- Driver's initials.
- Place and date of birth.
- ID validity period.
- Date of obtaining rights.
- Name of the organization that issued the certificate.
- Signature of the document owner.
- Certificate number.
- Photo of owner.
- List of categories.
- Additional information - medical indications, blood type and more.
On the driver's license, all information is indicated in Cyrillic. If letters of another alphabet are used, then the inscription is repeated in Latin letters.
What does a driver's license look like?
Information on the certificate is placed on both sides. Personal information about the driver is located on the front of the document. On the reverse - the categories of rights of the new sample are deciphered. Here, as a rule, those types of transport are indicated, the right to drive which the driver has.
The name of the received document and the territory of the subject whose organization issued the document are marked at the top of it. On the left is a photo of the driver. He must be imprinted on it without headgear and glasses. The standard photo size is 3x4. If the owner has vision problems, then he can take a picture with glasses, but with only one condition: their lenses must not be tinted. For people of certain religious beliefs, photographs with hats are allowed.
The driver, upon receipt of the certificate, signs under the photo. abandonedThe autograph must fully match the one in the passport. On the right side of the rights are the initials of the driver and his date of birth. All data written in Russian must be duplicated in Latin. Also on the right side there is information about who issued the document, its series and number, and the region of residence of the driver. Below is information about the assigned category.
On the left side of the right is a barcode containing all the data about the driver. On the rest of the surface is a table containing information about all categories. Those that are available to the driver are marked with a special mark. On the same side is the validity of these categories. Additional specific information is placed below the table. Driving experience is often indicated.
In November 2013, additions were made to the law "On Road Safety". According to the amendments, the list of categories of a driver's license has changed. It was supplemented with new subclasses. A breakdown of the driver's license categories is provided below.
A category A driver's license allows you to drive ordinary motorcycles. As well as those models to which the stroller is screwed. In addition, it makes it possible to drive motorized carriages. itquite rare today by means of transportation. According to the SDA, two-wheeled vehicles are classified as motorcycles. They may or may not have a side trailer. Also, this category of rights allows you to drive four-wheeled and three-wheeled vehicles, the mass of which is not more than 400 kg in a loaded state.
Allows you to drive motorcycles equipped with engines of small volume and power. For drivers - owners of category A - driving is available on vehicles belonging to category A1.
Cars, jeeps, minibuses and small trucks are vehicles that can be driven with a driver's license of this category. In addition, you can drive motorized carriages and cars with a trailer. In this case, the mass of the latter should not be more than 750 kg. If the weight of the unit exceeds this indicator, then additional requirements are imposed on the vehicle:
- The weight of the car without cargo should not be lower than the weight of the trailer.
- 3.5 tons is the maximum allowable weight of the machine and trailer hitch.
To drive a vehicle with a heavy wagon, a person must have a BE driver's license. Such units include category B vehicles with a trailer weighing more than the mass of the vehicle or 750 kg. As well as a car and a trailer, the total mass of which exceeds 500 kg.
Driver's licensecategory B1 license allows you to ride quadricycles and tricycles. It is difficult to find detailed information about vehicles belonging to this class. It is worth noting that a quad bike and a quad bike are different vehicles. Therefore, driving the first, having only the rights to the second, is prohibited.
Medium and heavy goods vehicles and trucks with trailers weighing no more than 750 kilograms can only be driven with a category C driver's license. At the same time, the weight of ordinary vehicles is from 3500 to 7500 kilograms. Heavy - more than 7500 kilograms. If you have category C, driving cars and small trucks with a mass of not more than 3500 kg is prohibited.
A driver is allowed to drive a truck with a trailer weighing more than 750 kilograms. But only if you have a driver's license subcategory CE. It includes vehicles with trailers weighing more than 750 kilograms.
A category C1 driver's license allows you to drive a cargo-type vehicle. Its maximum weight varies from 3500 to 7500 kilograms. These cars can be attached to a light trailer that weighs no more than 750 kg. If the driver has class C, then he has the right to drive cars corresponding to subcategory C1.
Separately, it is worth mentioning such categories of a driver's license as C1E. Such rights give the driver the opportunity to drive cars of category C1,equipped with trailers. At the same time, their maximum weight should not exceed 750 kilograms. The weight of a truck and its trailer must not exceed 12,000 kg. If you have a senior category CE driver's license, a person can drive a vehicle belonging to category C1E.
Driving buses, regardless of their weight, and buses with a trailer weighing no more than 750 kilograms is possible with a category D driver's license. This category also includes articulated buses.
You can drive small passenger buses with 9 to 16 seats if you have a D1 driver's license category. It also includes light trailers. Their maximum weight does not exceed 750 kilograms. Buses with heavier trailers require category D1E.
It is worth immediately paying attention to the fact that the trailer must be only cargo, not passenger. Their total weight should not exceed 12 tons. Those drivers who have obtained a category D license can drive buses belonging to the subcategory D1. And those who have a DE rank can drive D1E class cars.
To date, the categories of new driver's licenses do not include the E category. It has been replaced by the subclasses described above: BE, CE, DE, D1E,C1E. If the driver has category E rights, they can always be handed over. And in return, get a new ID with an updated rank.
The category M driver's license was introduced relatively recently. It appeared in November 2013. According to this category, those drivers who have received a license can drive light ATVs and mopeds. At the same time, those drivers who have the rights of any other categories can drive such vehicles. However, for example, a tractor driver's driver's license does not give the right to drive mopeds.
Tb and Tm categories
In 2016, new traffic rules appeared, according to which the decoding of the categories of the new driver's license Tb and Tm corresponds to the right to drive trams and trolleybuses. Previously, both types of public transport were not distinguished into separate classes. Information about the ability to manage such vehicles was entered in a special column of the driver's license. These were special marks.
Change driver's license
To obtain a new driver's license, the driver must apply to the traffic police department, providing employees with the following documents:
- Medical certificate.
- Passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation.
- Old driver's license.
- Receipt confirming the payment of the state duty. Last year, the amount was 2,000 rubles.
- Photos 3x4.
All information is transferred to the new rights. They alsoit is noted which categories of the driver's license were opened in the old document. Also, new bits are added to the fresh copy. If the driver has at least one category, class M is automatically opened for him. New rights can be picked up on the same day on which the documents were submitted. In addition, an application for a replacement certificate can be left on the website of public services. You do not need to retake the exam to get a new document.
What do you need to open a new category of driver's license?
In order to obtain a new or additional category of a driver's license, two procedures must be followed:
- Learn the traffic rules corresponding to the selected category.
- Pass the exam.
Categories A, A1, B1 and M are issued only after passing a theoretical test, which in many ways resembles passing to category B. And also after passing a practical exam, reaching the age of sixteen for categories A1 and M and eighteen for A. The rights to cars and trucks are issued only after the driver reaches the age of majority.
Training for the rights of categories B1 and C1 is only for those over 18 years old. It is much more difficult to obtain a certificate for buses, trams and trolleybuses. It is issued only upon reaching the age of 21. Driving categories BE, CE and DE require a driving experience of at least one year. Subcategories C1E and D1Eare issued only if the driver has open previous digits - C, D, C1, D1.
Despite the fact that new series of driver's licenses have been added to the SDA, the procedure for obtaining them has not changed much, having undergone only minor innovations. The main differences were age and experience. For example, new driver's licenses may indicate the type of car transmission. If there is no such mark on the rights, then the driver can be controlled both from a manual and automatic transmission. Also, what the categories in the driver's license mean has not changed: all the information has remained the same.
Any citizen of the Russian Federation who meets the requirements can pass the exam for any of the above categories. Passage of theoretical and practical courses is carried out on the basis of driving schools. Many traffic police departments require drivers to have a certificate of graduation from such an educational institution. The absence of such a document does not allow a potential driver to pass the exam for a driver's license.