More and more people in our country are thinking about getting a driver's license. According to statistics, every year the number of motorists is increasing. Fortunately, today you don’t need much to make this dream come true: only desire and certain knowledge and skills. If you have not yet decided on the category you want to open, then in this article you will find detailed answers to questions about what categories of driving licenses exist and what vehicles they allow you to drive.
After passing the driving test, each person receives a driver's license. It gives the right to drive vehicles of the selected category. Regardless of the type, the same parameters are indicated on all rights in the form:
- All full data of the owner (except for the registration address).
- ID number and validity period.
- Information aboutreceived categories.
- Photos of the owner.
Also, a driver's license may indicate blood type, total driving experience and other data.
New design rights
Since 2017, all those who have completed training at a driving school and passed the exams are issued a new type of license. How are they different from the old ones and why were they replaced? The fact is that the old driver's licenses are obsolete. They did not have proper protection against fakes, and only the main categories were indicated on the reverse side.
Driver's license with new driving categories is issued according to the international standard. The appearance is a small card that can easily fit in any wallet, with a photo of the owner and all the necessary data. If you look closely at the pinkish tone, you can see a thin mesh that covers the entire surface of the driver's license. It is made up of codes. All documents indicate 4 columns and 17 lines of characters. They confirm the identity of the owner and prove his right to drive the vehicle.
The information contained in this barcode can only be read by a special device that can only be used by traffic officers. Also, using this code, you can easily find out about the debts and fines of the driver, if any. Checking the authenticity of a driver's license to drive a category B car is easy: you just need to look at the hologramand the color of the ID. If it shimmers and changes colors, it means that you have the original.
Deciphering the categories of rights of the new sample
Depending on which mode of transport you drive, the rights are divided into categories. This allows you to distinguish between training, because machines with different weights and technical characteristics require different knowledge. It would be absurd if the person who handed over the right to drive a motorcycle would move to a tractor. And for the safety of others, it would be worth fearing much more. Since 2014, amendments have been made to the law "On the safety of DD" that have changed the appearance of a driver's license. True, the changes affected only the reverse side of the rights.
What changes have taken place? A new category of driver's license has appeared - "M". It allows you to drive vehicles with an engine capacity of up to 50 horsepower. Unfortunately, while in educational institutions it is not possible to find a course dedicated specifically to the category "M". This happens due to the fact that after opening the category "A", which allows you to drive a motorcycle, you are automatically credited with "M". As recently as 2015, category M driving licenses simply did not exist, and many rode scooters and mopeds without restrictions. What other changes have occurred in the appearance of rights?
Other innovations in the driver's license
Another change that can be found in the new type of driver's license is the subcategories. So calledjunior subcategories noticeably replaced the well-known "A", "B", "C", "D". There are six of them: "A1", "B1", "C1", "D1", "C1E", "D1E". Naturally, each of them gives the right to drive only a certain vehicle. For clarity, next to the category designation on the certificate, a schematic image of the vehicle is indicated. If you have an old-style license, then there is no need to change them to new ones: their validity period will be the same as for new ones, i.e. 10 years from the date of issue.
If we start to consider the categories of driving licenses in more detail, then the first category in the list is category "A" and its derivative - "A1". Having received such a mark, you can safely ride any motorcycle, including those with a side trailer. Subcategory "A1" gives the right to drive only light motorcycles and ATVs. Engine size plays a key role in this.
- Engine size 125 and above cubic centimeters - category "A";
- Engine size 50-125 cm3 – subcategory “A1”;
- Vehicle engine size less than 50cc3 – Category M.
Most often in Russia open category "A". This is because neither the category "A1" nor "M" can be found in the training courses of driving schools. And their cost will be slightly less than a full-fledged "A", which will open access to the other two.
Next is the most popular category - "B". By law, this category includes cars with a mass of not more than 3.5 tons and havingno more than 8 passenger seats in the cabin. As a rule, these are passenger cars that can most often be found on the roads of our country. The machine can also transport a trailer, but its mass must not exceed 750 kg. If it is higher, then the subcategory "BE" enters the scene. It allows you to transport solid trailers, such as a motorhome. And the weight of the transported trailer can even be higher than the weight of the car itself.
Another new category of driver's license - subsection "B1". It is needed to control quadricycles and tricycles. Do not confuse them with ATVs. On a quadricycle, you can safely ride on all roads, and on ATVs - only on country roads. The good news is that you can open the "B1" subcategory if you pass to the "A" or "B" categories. You must be over 18 to drive vehicles in these categories.
Heavyweights gathered in category "C" - cars with a mass of more than 3.5 tons. You can also attach a trailer weighing up to 750 kg to them. If you are going to drive a heavyweight weighing from 3.5 to 7.5 tons, then the new category of rights "C1" will be enough for you. To drive a truck with a trailer over 750 kg, you will need the CE subcategory. You will need to get the C1E mark in order to drive a large heavy truck over 7.5 tons with a heavy trailer. The total weight of the train must not exceed 12 tons.
Category "D" is usually opened by drivers of buses and minibuses. Even if you are an ordinary fatherfamilies, but drive a car with more than 12 passenger seats, you will need to open this category. Subcategory "D1" is intended for minibuses with a total number of seats not exceeding 16. It can only be opened from the age of 21. If you decide to take a trailer or motorhome with you, the weight of which is more than 750 kilograms, then you will need the subcategory "DE" or "D1E" to drive such a heavy train.
Open subcategories with the prefix "E" only if the driving experience in the main category was more than a year. Therefore, a beginner will not be able to immediately open all possible subcategories.
How to get new design rights
The procedure for obtaining a driver's license with new categories of driving licenses remains the same. First you need to go through training and pass exams. After successfully completing an accredited driving school, you will need to pass two types of tests: theoretical and practical. For categories "A" and "M", which allow you to drive motorcycles and scooters, the practical exam "urban driving" is not needed. For all other categories, practice is divided into driving on a specially designated area and around the city. The obtained rights are valid for 10 years.
Recent changes to the Law should have a positive impact on the situation on the roads. The new driving license categories in Russia clearly define which vehicles drivers can drive. After all, the difference between styledriving a car with a motorhome and an ordinary passenger car is obvious. Skill and experience in the first case requires much more. Therefore, the majority of drivers perceived the changes positively. No matter what type of vehicle you drive, you must be proficient at it. It remains only to decide which category of the new type of license is more to your liking: maybe you dream of driving a motorcycle with a sidecar, or a moped is enough. New license categories help narrow the circle and make travel safer for all road users.