The intensive development of the automotive industry has led to the creation of new types of engines, chassis, modernization of security systems, etc. In this article, we will talk about the independent suspension of a car. It has a number of features, advantages and disadvantages. It is this type of body suspension that we will now consider.
Suspension with longitudinal and oblique arms
It is worth noting right away that there are a large number of types of pendants. All of them were developed to improve the technical characteristics of the car and increase comfort while driving. Some types are better off-road, while others are great for city driving. First of all, let's talk about the independent suspension on trailing arms. This design was popular in the 70s and 80s in French cars, and later found application in scooters. Torsion bars or springs are used as an elastic element. The wheel is connected to the trailing arm, and the latter is connected to the car body (movable). The advantages of such a system are the simplicity and low cost of maintenance, and the disadvantages are roll and change in the wheelbase while the car is moving.
As for the slanting arms, the key difference from the above design is that the swing axis of the trailing arm is at an angle. This approach allowed to minimize the change in the wheelbase and roll. But the handling was still far from ideal, since when driving through bumps, the camber angles change. Often this arrangement was used on the rear independent suspension of cars.
Another popular type of independent suspension. The device is quite simple. There are two axle shafts, at the inner ends of which there are hinges connected to the differential. Accordingly, the outer end of the axle shaft is rigidly attached to the wheel hub. All the same springs or springs are used as elastic elements. One of the main advantages of this design is that the wheel remains perpendicular to the axle at all times, even when hitting obstacles. Actually, in this type of suspension, trailing arms are also used, which reduce vibrations from the roadway.
As for the shortcomings, they are here. When driving over rough terrain, not only the camber changes in wide values, but also the track width. This significantly reduces the controllability of the vehicle. This disadvantage is most noticeable at a speed of 60 km / h and above. As for the strengths, this is the simplicity of design and relatively cheapservice.
Trailing and wishbone suspension
One of the most expensive types, which is extremely rare due to the complexity of the design. In fact, the suspension is made according to the "MacPherson" type with minor differences. The designers decided to remove the load from the mudguard and therefore placed the spring a little further than the shock absorber. One of its ends rests on the engine compartment, and the other - on the passenger compartment. To transfer force from the shock absorber to the spring, the designers added a swing arm. He could move in a vertical longitudinal plane. In the center, the lever was connected to the spring, one end was attached to the shock absorber, and the other to the bulkhead.
Actually, almost all joints are articulated, and this is a significant drawback, since "MacPherson" was famous for their small number. Actually, such a front independent suspension is found on Rover cars. It has no special advantages, therefore it is not popular, and it is difficult and expensive to serve it.
This type of pendants is quite common. It has the following structure. Transversely located levers on one side are attached to the body, usually movably, and on the other hand - to the suspension strut. In the rear suspension, the strut is not swivel with a ball joint and with one degree of freedom. For the front suspension - a swivel strut and two degrees of freedom. In this design, various elastic elements are used: twisted springs,springs, torsion bars or hydropneumatic cylinders.
Often, the design involves attaching the lever to the crossbar. The latter with the body is fixed rigidly, that is, motionless. This implementation allows you to completely remove the front suspension of the car. From a kinematic point of view, the suspension has no drawbacks and is preferred for mounting on racing cars. But maintenance is expensive due to the large number of ball bearings and labor-intensive work.
Structurally the most complex type of pendants. It is similar in principle to a double wishbone suspension. Most often placed on the back of a class "D" or "C" car. In such a suspension, each arm determines the behavior of the wheel. It is due to this design that it is possible to achieve maximum controllability and the effect of "steering" the rear axle. The latter advantage allows not only better entry into turns, but also a slightly shorter turning radius.
From an operational point of view, there are no shortcomings. All the disadvantages are that it uses not one independent suspension arm, but much more. Each of them is equipped with a pair of silent blocks and ball bearings. Therefore, maintenance costs decent money.
Rear independent suspension for VAZ
The torsion-link suspension of the classics, mounted on the rear axle, is considered semi-independent. The design has its own advantagesand shortcomings. To improve handling, car owners often install an independent suspension. It is not difficult to guess that all the alterations are carried out on front-wheel drive cars.
The pendant itself is sold as a set. According to the manufacturer, it does not require modifications and is mounted as a unit without making changes to the vehicle design. But in practice this is not entirely true. The muffler barrel interferes, so you should buy a shortened version. There were no modifications to the mounts either. Some need to be finalized with a file, while others need to be placed in the right places for this. But most importantly, this design significantly increases the controllability of the car, although demolishing the rear axle will become sharper and less predictable.
Some important tips
When choosing a car, it is advisable to pay attention to the type of its suspension. Independent is a great choice for city driving, and dependent is indispensable for traveling over bumps and trips to the country. The advantage of the latter is that the clearance remains unchanged. This is true for off-road and completely meaningless for asph alt. Many modern SUVs have a spring rear beam, while the front is usually multi-link.
Never forget about the maintenance of the chassis of the car, and the suspension in particular. After all, even a multi-link with "killed" silent blocks and ball bearings will not give a sense of security and comfort. In addition, driving such a car is life-threatening. Therefore, timely maintenancenecessarily. Currently, the most preferred type of suspension can be considered multi-link. But its maintenance is quite expensive, although much depends on the operating conditions and the quality of spare parts. Dependent suspension is suitable for trucks and SUVs where flotation, field maintainability and reliability are more important than comfort.