The chassis of the car is responsible for handling and comfort on the road. The complex work of all components and assemblies guarantees safety while driving. In the article we will deal with what the front suspension of a car is and what types of it are. We will also consider in detail the main components responsible for the controllability of the vehicle.
General information about car suspension
The main component of the running gear of a car is the suspension. The comfort and safety of movement directly depends on the depreciation system. The implementation of the energy of the movement of the car and damping vibrations from the road surface is the main task of the suspension. The chassis of the car is constantly being improved. Higher quality components and assemblies are being installed, which make the design more reliable and the ride safer.
The first suspension appeared much earlier than the introduction of cars into operation. They were mounted on horse-drawn carriages to overcome uneven roads. Then for the first time the wheelsbegan to move in a vertical plane, regardless of the body. The suspension device practically did not change on the first cars, the maximum speed of which was no more than 30. But over time, the design improved. Consider several popular types of front suspension, their design differences and features.
Today, every automaker uses certain "chips" in the front suspension of the car. But almost always the same goals are pursued, namely:
- increase comfort level;
- reduce noise;
- improve handling;
- make maintenance as easy as possible;
- make the knot as safe and durable as possible.
Competition is growing every year between all leading auto concerns. That is why each manufacturer tries to make the chassis as adapted as possible to any road conditions. But regardless of the device of the front suspension, it consists of such elements as a stabilizer, a shock absorber, an elastic element, a guide part and a wheel support. But the implementation is different for everyone. Let's take a closer look at each component.
They are divided into metal and non-metal. The first include springs that have been used in cars for a long time. By design, this is a set of metal plates of various lengths, which are interconnected. Springs not only effectively redistributeload, but also well amortized. In addition, they are durable and easy to maintain. Very often they are used in the suspension of trucks. The most common metal elements are springs. They are of constant and variable stiffness. If the diameter of the rod does not change along the length, then the stiffness is constant, but when it changes, it is variable.
Non-metallic parts are elastic elements (chippers, buffers). They are also responsible for cushioning and redistributing loads. A striking example of non-metallic parts of the front suspension are hydropneumatic or pneumatic chambers. This suspension design allows you to change the clearance of the car and provides maximum smoothness. Pneumatics or hydraulics are usually installed on premium cars.
In detail about the guide part of the car
The main task of the node is to keep the wheels in the correct position and maintain the trajectory. In addition, the guide part is responsible for the effective connection of the body and shock absorber, as well as the transfer of motion energy. The main elements of the assembly include the following parts: front suspension arm, struts and swivel joints.
Ensuring the necessary stability of the vehicle on the road is achieved due to the presence of an anti-roll bar in the design. It is designed to reduce body roll when entering a turn and reduce the centrifugal force that causes the car to roll over. The behavior of the car on the road largely depends on the stiffness of the stabilizer, which is a torsion bar. Than hesofter, the more suspension travel and smoothness. Rigidity improves handling, but reduces other parameters. Usually both axles of the car are equipped with stabilizers. If the rear suspension is torsion bar, then they are placed only on the front axle.
A little about shock absorbers
Regardless of the type of chassis, the front suspension of VAZ and Audi is equipped with shock absorbers. They are necessary to dampen vibrations of the wheels from the roadway. In addition, the racks provide a smooth ride and constant contact of the wheel with the roadway. There are currently two types of shock absorbers in use:
- Single-pipe. Filled with gas. The design of the rack provides for one working cylinder, in its lower part there is a chamber under pressure of 2-3 MPa. Between the cylinder and the chamber is a floating valve. It is under constant gas pressure. The main advantage of such a rack is that during intensive work there is no emulsification effect (oil foaming). Therefore, such a rack does not overheat, provides better damping and can be installed in any position.
- Two-pipe. It consists of a pair of cylinders of different diameters, one is inside the other. In the inner cylinder - a rod with a piston. Communication with the external cylinder is realized through the bottom valve. The outer chamber is filled with air to compensate for volume when the shock absorber rod moves. The main advantages are cheapness and simplicity. Disadvantages - low cooling efficiency and a decrease in the quality of work during prolongedheavy duty operation.
Small or medium-sized vehicles are most often equipped with just such a suspension design. The key difference from other types is that the lower front suspension arm is used in conjunction with a telescopic strut. The elastic element (spring) is located directly on the rack, so the main force from the mass of the car falls on its center. The lower arm is necessary to control the trajectory of the wheels when subjected to longitudinal and transverse forces. The design is especially relevant for front-wheel drive vehicles. To increase stability and reduce roll, a stabilizer is installed. Usually it is made in the form of a curved rod, which is attached to a lever or racks by means of a hinge.
This type of pendant can safely be called more complex and expensive to manufacture. Usually used on cars above the middle class. The principle of operation of such a node is that the swing of the wheel hub is limited by a spring (if you remove the upper arm). But since the hub also needs an upper support, two levers are used, which are connected using a ball joint.
It is also noteworthy that the upper lever is always smaller than the lower one. This is done to maintain the perpendicular position of the wheel while driving. The main advantages of a double wishbone suspension are that there is a load-bearing beam that allows the entire suspension to be dismantled.single node. Also, this design significantly improved handling. But there are also disadvantages here - the complexity of repairs and the high cost of maintenance due to the tight layout.
Renault Logan front suspension
French car on the front axle is equipped with "MacPherson". This provides not only good vehicle handling, but also a high level of comfort. The design and principle of operation are as follows. At the heart of everything is the subframe. It is attached to the body through silent blocks, which is necessary to dampen vibrations and vibrations. It is on the subframe that the front suspension assembly is installed. It consists of a spring and a shock absorber. The rack is attached from above to a special bowl, which is located in the wing, and from below - to the steering knuckle. In addition, the design has an anti-roll bar, a lever, and a steering knuckle. It is worth paying attention to the fact that "Logan" has a very strong chassis, which many motorists call "indestructible." True, it all depends on the roads on which the vehicle moves. Installing original parts guarantees long-term operation of the unit.
Nissan Almera front suspension
Nissan cars of this model are equipped with MacPherson type independent suspension. It has two transverse levers, which are made in the shape of a triangle. Anti-roll bar is not available on all cars. The shock absorber is two-pipe gas-filled, and the front suspension spring is of constant stiffness. Between the upper cup and the spring there is a thrustball bearing. It allows the strut body and spring to rotate around its axis. In this case, the stem remains stationary.
Which type of suspension is better?
There is simply no single answer to the question. It all depends on the operating conditions of the vehicle. For example, MacPherson is an excellent budget solution for most small cars. Comfort is at the proper level, and maintenance is extremely simple and inexpensive. But the multi-link independent suspension is already a slightly different class. Here, to replace the ball front upper arm, you will have to work hard. Therefore, maintenance will cost a pretty penny. But handling and comfort are much higher here. As for the dependent suspension, it is practically not used on passenger cars at present.
We have reviewed the main types of front suspensions used in modern vehicles. Each of the solutions has its own advantages and disadvantages. But it is worth saying that it is necessary to service both the MacPherson and the multi-link, because a ball joint torn out at full speed often leads to a serious accident and even death. It is worth noting that the front axle is under heavy loads, so it must be serviced regularly. Otherwise, the front suspension may need to be replaced. It is recommended to install only original spare parts. Twice to change the ball joint when the work costs twice as much as the part, hardly anyonewants. Therefore, it is better to purchase high-quality spare parts the first time, even if they are not always cheap.