Rational classification of motor oils

Rational classification of motor oils
Rational classification of motor oils

Rational selection of engine oils is an essential condition for long-term operation of the engine of any car. Therefore, this event should be given special attention.

Today, there are a huge number of different classifications of motor oils. The main parameters that underlie them are the following:

  • type;
  • viscosity;
  • quality.
Classification of motor oils
Classification of motor oils

The most common of all is the classification of motor oils by type:

  • Mineral engine oils. Their big advantage is their relatively low cost. It should be remembered that the range of use of these oils is not very wide. Production is carried out by blending residual and/or distillate oils.
  • Synthetic motor oils. The main advantage is the ability to use in almost any situation. But their cost is quite high. This is due to the fact that high-quality components are used in the production process, as well assophisticated equipment.
  • Semi-synthetic engine oils. Their use is very beneficial for both the car and its owner. Such motor oils are relatively inexpensive, help reduce fuel consumption, and also have good performance characteristics. However, they can be used in all types of engines.

The classification of motor oils according to their viscosity (SAE classification) is quite common. According to this indicator, they are all divided into the following types:

  • winter;
  • summer;
  • all season.

Winter-type motor oils are marked using the letter "W" (0W, 5W, 10W, and so on). The larger the number before the letter, the higher the viscosity. As for summer motor oils, they are completely marked with numbers alone according to a similar principle. All-weather oils must have 2 digits in their full name. In this case, the first of them displays the viscosity of the oil at low temperatures, and the second - dynamic viscosity at 150oC and kinematic at 100oC.

motor oil labeling
motor oil labeling

Apparently, the most difficult is the classification of motor oils by quality. Its foundation was laid back in 1947, when the so-called API gradation appeared. It has been updated many times. The current classification of this type dates back to 2001. According to her, all engine oils are divided into 2 large categories:

  • service: includes 9 classes;
  • commercial: includes 10classes.

All engine oils in the servise category are designed for use in those engines that run on gasoline. As for commercial oils, they are designed for diesel power units.

Synthetic engine oils
Synthetic engine oils

There is also 1 more classification of motor oils by quality level - ACEA. It divides all types of oils into 3 groups: A, B and C. The first of them includes 3 types: A1, A2 and A3. They are designed for engines running on gasoline. The second group is already divided into 4 types: B1, B2, B3 and B4. Such motor oils are usually used in light diesel engines that are installed on cars and vans made on their basis. The third group also includes 4 types of oils: C1, C2, C3 and C4. They are used in heavy diesel engines that are equipped with trucks.