2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-20 18:31
The engine is the heart of the car, and the performance of the car depends on the state in which it is located. The motor does not always work perfectly, for which there are many reasons, both operational and technical. But today, powerful diagnostic systems are provided that allow foreseeing a breakdown and identifying a weak link. Let's talk about what to do if the check engine light comes on and how to fix it.
Not every motorist is faced with engine repair. If you operate the machine as required by the manufacturer, then there are unlikely to be any problems. But not changing the oil in time, not having passed MOT can lead to the most sad consequences. As a result, this will result in minor repairs at best, and major repairs at worst. In any case, if the engine malfunction light comes on, this is a clear signal that it's time to go to the "doctor", in our case, to the service.
So, there can be a lot of reasons why the motor needed repairs. But in most cases, the case is associated with increased wear of the piston group, which contributes to a decrease in power and an increase in fuel consumption. But we will talk about this point in particular a little later. The key point is that the repair of diesel engines and gasoline engines differs from each other. This must be understood, because if you have experience with a diesel engine, this does not mean that gasoline is restored exactly the same way. Although the motors work on the same principle, they have several design differences. All this means that, before starting repairs, you need to understand a little about the design and understand how everything works. After that, it is advisable to start looking for a defect that led to a particular breakdown. All these points will be described in this article. But we will start with the most important and simplest.
Basics of the basics
In most cases, it all starts with the fact that the driver does not fulfill the basic requirements. For the normal operation of any motor, no matter whether it is domestically produced or not, constant lubrication is necessary. To do this, we fill in oil in a certain amount, which needs to be changed periodically. During the operation of the internal combustion engine, it lubricates the pistons and other rubbing parts, thereby reducing friction, increasing productivity and reducing wear. But over time, the oil becomes contaminated and ceases to fulfill its main purpose. This leads to the fact that the rubbing surfaces are subject to increased wear. As a result, the engine can jam, and here you can’t do without a major overhaul. In anycase, the condition of the oil must be monitored.
Most manufacturers recommend changing engine oil once a season or every 8-10 thousand kilometers. But another typical mistake is that the wrong quality oil is poured. It also does not lead to anything good. You will be lucky if you notice a knock in the motor in time and seek help. The oil will be drained, the engine will be washed and filled with new. After that, adjustment work will be carried out, and you can ride again. However, oil is not the only problem. For example, repair of diesel engines may be required due to increased wear of engine parts, burnout of pistons, etc. The mode of operation of the car plays an important role here.
Main causes of failure of gasoline and diesel engines
As noted above, a huge number of factors affect the resource of the internal combustion engine. Among the main ones are dust and dirt, which can enter the engine directly through the filter element. For example, diesel engines are very sensitive to fuel quality. Impurities such as water and sulfur lead to corrosion of injectors and pumps, which ultimately affects fuel delivery. Of great importance is the mode of movement, constant braking and acceleration, stops and overtaking. If the motor has been operating in one mode for a long time, then it will run an order of magnitude longer. But the most important factor that reduces the life of the engine is poor service at the service station. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to identify this, since immediately after the repair everything seems to be fine, the firstproblems occur after several thousand kilometers.
If the engine malfunction light comes on, then something needs to be done, and every driver understands this. But what to do in this case and where to look for a breakdown? Perhaps we are dealing with an overheating of the engine, or maybe something happened to the quality of the fuel-air mixture. In general, the problem can be searched for a long time. But there are a number of signs that can help us with this. In this article, we will look at the main ones and find out how to fix the most common problems with our own hands.
Not enough lube
So-called "oil starvation" is the main cause of engine failure. Almost all cases are due to the fact that there is insufficient pressure in the system or it is absent at all. Already after a few seconds of engine operation without lubrication, the plain bearings heat up, then the actifriction layer of the liners melts. The most favorable outcome in this case is the stop of the motor, that is, its jamming. If the liners in the beds do not turn, then the connecting rods and the crankshaft do not receive significant damage. If you try to turn the crankshaft with a lever or a pusher, it will only get worse, you need to understand this. Even if the engine is successfully restored, the "oil starvation" will take its toll later.
Often, at sub-zero temperatures, drivers have difficulty starting the engine. This happens mostly due to an increase in the viscosity of the oil. This is especially true for mineral compositions. Synthetics perform better at both low and high temperatures. As for the diagnosis of such a malfunction (“oil starvation”), for this it is necessary to check its level with a dipstick. This is done on a "cold", that is, the car should not start for a while. In addition, the Mercedes, VAZ and any other engine has a corresponding sensor that lights up on the dashboard when there is insufficient pressure.
Engine overheating and everything connected with it
The motor can fail due to overheating for several reasons. Often the problem lies in the malfunction of the cooling system, which ceases to perform its task at full strength. But, in addition, depressurization of the block head also leads to such a negative effect as overheating. As for the cooling system, cracked hoses and a gap in the radiator lead to leakage of antifreeze. Often, such cases do not occur immediately, but after a long operation of the car. Rubber is prone to aging, and metal is prone to corrosion. So it turns out that if you do not periodically check the cooling system, then trouble can happen. It does not matter at all whether you have a Volkswagen or Porsche engine, it will not work without good cooling, and if it does, it will not last long.
It is interesting that a clear sign of a malfunction in the cooling system is the lack of heat in the cabin during the winter season. True, there may be clogged pipes or a broken radiator stove. As for the leakage of the system, this leads to a significant decrease in temperature at whichboiling coolant. Eventually the lack of cooling leads to overheating. There are two options: either the automation will work, which simply will not allow the motor to work further, or serious repairs will be required. For example, a Volkswagen engine operates at relatively low temperatures, while Mercedes engines operate at higher temperatures. Therefore, the maximum allowable temperature for them is also different.
Wrong fuel selection
We have already figured out a little why the engine malfunction light is on. As it turns out, often the driver himself is to blame, but this is not in 100% of cases. In some situations, the fault lies on the shoulders of the service station employees. But it also happens that it is quite difficult to determine the culprit. A striking example of this is the insufficient quality of fuel. Why it has a low octane number is a separate conversation. In spark ignition engines, this leads to detonation, which is not good, and this is a fact.
If VAZ engines allow you to manually adjust the advance angle and, therefore, use fuel with a low octane number, then modern internal combustion engines, in particular foreign ones, do not have such an opportunity. A striking example of this are the engines of Nissan, Volvo, etc. Another interesting point is that many drivers use flammable liquids to start the engine in severe frost. This applies in particular to diesel engines. You can’t do this, as you can easily ruin the piston group.
Main engine malfunctions: water hammer in the cylinder
The key cause of water hammer is the ingress of various liquids into the cylinders. For example, the ingress of water on the suction pipe of the air filter. Fluid can easily reach the cylinders. For this simple reason, it makes sense to say that some car models are more prone to water hammer, while others are less so, since the body structure and the location of the suction pipe are different for everyone. So, to determine such a malfunction is quite simple. First, it is an abrupt stop of the engine. This happens for the following reason. Water enters the cylinder, namely the combustion chamber. There, the piston rests against it, and since the substance is fireproof, the pressure increases sharply, the connecting rod is deformed and the motor stops completely.
In general, there are a lot of reasons for water hammer. But this is always the ingress of some kind of liquid into the cylinders. It could be oil from a broken turbocharger or something like that. Oddly enough, but the repair of the engine "Mercedes", "Audi", and any other in this case is very problematic. In some cases, the piston group is completely destroyed.
The engine malfunction light is on: diagnosing a problem by appearance
It is unlikely that a newcomer, looking into the engine compartment of a car, will understand that it was the engine that has failed, even if there are obvious signs of it. But an experienced specialist can easily determine the problem by visual inspection. The main signs indicating a malfunction of the internal combustion engine: extraneous sounds, color andexhaust gas composition, oil consumption, etc. But even here there are a number of problems. The fact is that special algorithms are used to determine the malfunction. They are used by experienced professionals. But here you need to be careful, since not all motors have a classic design. For example, Nissan and VAZ engines are very different from each other, and with equal signs of breakdown, the malfunction can be hidden in different places.
In most cases, it is necessary to look not for the consequence of a breakdown, but for its cause. At the same time, visual diagnostics does not provide such an opportunity. For example, the master came to the conclusion that the repair of the Mercedes engine was necessary due to the knocking of the connecting rod bearings. Most likely, a decision will be made to change them due to poor condition. But it can be not only in bearings, but also in a broken oil pump. In general, the method is good and simple, but not always reliable.
Troubleshooting Engine Mechanical
It's safe to say that troubleshooting is currently carried out in a huge number of ways. There is a mechanical part of the motor and electronic systems. So, in the first case, you need an experienced specialist who is well versed in internal combustion engines, and in the second, diagnostic equipment.
As for the mechanical part, VAZ engine malfunctions are often determined by the master by ear. True, this is not an entirely accurate method, but in most cases it is very effective. Any modern diagnostic method cannot provide complete information about the condition.motor, just like the visual inspection method.
Many do not understand that VAZ sensors, and indeed any other car, are needed for a reason. They show pressure, temperature and other useful information. If the oil lamp lights up, then this indicates its insufficient amount or lack of pressure in the system. There are various engine sensors and all of them are needed. Nevertheless, sometimes you still need to disassemble the motor and look for a malfunction yourself. The simplest and cheapest method is to check cylinder compression. There is nothing difficult in these works. They take a pressure gauge with a special connector and screw it in instead of a spark plug or glow plug. An excellent method, but important factors such as mileage, the presence of marks on the cylinders are often overlooked. All this can be confusing for an inexperienced repairman. Methods for measuring compression in cylinders on diesel and gasoline engines are different. The first ones are the lowest. If the pressure falls below a certain level, then it is possible to judge an obvious malfunction of the cylinders.
As you can see, the cause of the engine malfunction light is not always quickly and easily determined. Often, the attention of an experienced specialist and the availability of diagnostic equipment are required. But even so, it is sometimes difficult to get a complete picture of events. As a rule, any serious breakdown requires complete or partial disassembly of the motor. As a result, the repairman has a failed part or a whole assembly in his hands. But often even visible defects do not allow to determine the malfunction with 100% accuracy.
A very important and responsible unit is the engine management system. This, you guessed it, is about fuel injection and ignition. To diagnose these systems on modern cars, you need to use powerful stands and additional equipment. If we are talking about an old "six" or "penny", then the diagnosis looks a little different. All work is carried out without any electronic equipment. Sometimes in the hands there is the most common voltmeter. Nevertheless, the simplicity of the design and the great experience of the craftsmen make it possible to find faults with great accuracy, eliminate them and adjust the ignition and fuel injection.
The engine of "Mercedes", Nissan, "Audi" and others have a very complex design. That is why their repair is often very expensive. If you do it yourself, then use only those oils recommended by the manufacturer, original parts and follow the rules of operation. Any motor is very durable and reliable even under the most extreme operating conditions, but over time, parts wear out and operation becomes unstable. That is why timely diagnosis and repair is so important. Now you know what to do if the check engine light comes on.