To this day, there are cars whose parameters are able to satisfy the needs of modern drivers. Of course, each of these machines has undergone significant changes over the years, but at their core they have remained the same reliable, powerful and easy to operate and repair.
In this article we will consider the performance characteristics of the ZIL-131 car. This legendary truck, thanks to its performance, has been one of the leaders in the consumer market for many decades.
Before studying the performance characteristics of the ZIL-131, let's consider the key aspects of its creation. This car began its journey in 1959, when the employees of the Likhachev enterprise were tasked with improving the 130 models and creating a modification 131. This goal for the production workers was due to the plan adopted at the XXI Congress for the development of the nationaleconomy.
At the same time, for the implementation of the tasks conceived by the deputies of the USSR, trucks were required that could help a person in almost all areas of the national economy. It is worth noting immediately that the Soviet army at that time had a completely different tractor, which had excellent parameters from the performance characteristics of the ZIL-131. The military aspect was initially key during the development of the truck.
Despite the fact that the experimental prototypes of the ZIS-130 began to undergo sea trials in the mid-1950s, it eventually hit the assembly line only in 1962. Such a large gap from the moment of creation on paper to the moment it leaves the factory is due to a whole range of problems that have been successfully fought for quite some time.
Ultimately, it was on the basis of the ZIS that this car was designed. The performance characteristics of the ZIL-131 were completely polished only in 1966, but this made it possible for the car to successfully pass all the planned tests. 1967 was marked by the start of serial production of the car.
The truck's very long trial period resulted in a significant improvement in performance. In addition, the base chassis of the machine has been improved almost constantly. All this made it possible to increase the throughput and carrying capacity of the unit and optimize the design of the frame and engine. The seat and driver's cab received advanced ergonomics for those times.
Almost continuous innovation made it possible in 1986 to install a newpower plant, which in turn raised the bar for the truck's capabilities and reduced the loss of its operational resources.
Considering the performance characteristics of the ZIL-131, we note that the layout of the truck cab is bonneted. Its design has always been and is all-metal. However, the impractical front was eventually replaced by a sample from the ZIL-165. The intricate shape of the lattice and the wings have become simpler, but strict.
For almost 40 years, the exterior of the car has changed only in small ways. The designers decided not to hide the engine under the cab, as this significantly worsened access to it, which in the field would greatly complicate the task of repairing and maintaining it.
The body is equipped with folding sides, except for the rear. In order to stretch the awning, it is necessary to mount special metal arcs. In addition, instead of a cargo body, a first-aid post, a field kitchen, a rocket launcher, an arrow with a cradle and even a fire extinguishing mechanism can be installed on the car.
ZIL-131 cabin has a frame type. Outside, it is sheathed with sheet metal, and inside it is well insulated with special materials. All this allows the driver to feel comfortable in the car even in severe cold. Each moving element has a rubber seal, thanks to which the closure is hermetically sealed.
The instrument panel is equipped with the following instruments:
- fuel level sensor;
- oil pressure gauge;
The turn lever is located directly on the steering column, and the rest of the control system is located to the right of the tachometer on the dashboard. At the same time, the control handles have a shape that is convenient for grasping the hand. The driver and passenger seats cannot boast of a large number of adjustments, but being in the cockpit is still quite comfortable, as the engineers designed the seats based on the anthropometry of the average person, so the vast majority of drivers drive the car without any discomfort.
The cab is equipped with impressive rear-view mirrors, the viewing angle of which is so large that the driver can easily view everything behind, even when driving with a long trailer.
Paying attention to the performance characteristics of the AC 131 ZIL, we note that the car was originally created to overcome off-road conditions, and therefore its engine had to be very powerful. As a result, a carburetor from ZIL-5081 was installed on the car. This motor has a V-shaped arrangement of cylinders, of which there are 8 pieces. The engine is four-stroke, with a volume of 5.97 liters. The cylinder diameter is 100 mm and the piston stroke is 95 mm. The power plant has 150 horsepower and a maximum torque of 410 Nm.
Thanks to a powerful engine, the car is able to reach speeds of up to 85 km/h, and as part of a road train, this figure is 75 km/h. The type of fuel used is gasolineA-76, although the use of gasoline with a high octane number is quite acceptable.
A few words about transmission
When analyzing the performance characteristics of the ZIL-131 (including a fire truck), it is imperative to indicate the type of gearbox - 182EM / 6ST-132EM. In this case, the first stage has a gear ratio of 2.08:1, the main gear is 7.339:1.
The clutch disc is equipped with damping springs, the main task of which is to soften the process of transition between gearshift stages. A distinctive feature of the machine is that the front axle is switched on automatically using a special electro-pneumatic drive.
The car has a well insulated and shielded non-contact transistor type system that works well even in the most severe climatic conditions. Previously installed screens reduced the occurrence of interference during ignition to almost zero, and excellent sealing guaranteed the stability of contacts from short circuits while overcoming water obstacles. The devices are powered by a 12-volt battery and a special generator.
Suspension and parameters
Front it is dependent and works on two springs with sliding ends. The rear suspension is balanced, with two springs and six rods. Mechanical and pneumatic drum brake system.
The main performance characteristics of the ZIL-131 are as follows:
- length – 7000mm;
- width - 2500 mm;
- height - 2480 mm (2970 mm with awning);
- clearance - 330 mm;
- maximum weight of transported cargo - 3.5 tons;
- fuel consumption - 49.5 liters for every 100 kilometers in mixed mode;
- turning radius - 10.8 meters;
- braking distance - 29 meters at a speed of 50 km/h.
Pros and cons
ZIL-131, like most of the Soviet technology, is equipped with an excellent chassis, giving a chance to create different modifications without any complications. The machine, thanks to its technical performance, is able to work without accidents in extreme conditions, demonstrating its reliability in every possible way. The car is still used not only for military, but also for civilian purposes. A special "chip" of the car was the remote adjustment of tire pressure. At the time of the transition to the ground, it was possible to reduce the pressure from the passenger compartment without any problems. It was also possible to carry out a constant pumping of air during the trip in the presence of a slight puncture of the wheel.
However, the truck gradually aged and was sometimes unable to meet the higher requirements for new and complex tasks. That is why in 2002 the ZIL-131 was finally discontinued.
ТТХ ARS 14 ZIL-131 meet the requirements that are put forward for this vehicle as a fuel carrier and a vehicle capable of transporting liquids and solutions for disinfection and degassing of the area. In the public service sector, a vehicle is used for wateringstreets.
ZIL-131 car has the following parameters:
- length - 6856 mm;
- width - 2470 mm;
- height - 2480 mm;
- gross weight - 6860 kg;
- permissible weight of transported chemicals - 240 kg;
- tank capacity - 2700 l;
- working pressure - 3 atm;
- combat crew - 3 people;
- time to prepare the entire station for the task - 4 minutes;
- the period of complete emptying of the station during degassing or disinfection - up to 12 minutes;
- gross weight of the entire station, taking into account calculation and working fluid - 10,185 kg.
As for the performance characteristics of the ZIL-131 fire truck, they look like this:
- Total weight - 11,050 kg;
- volume of water tank - 2400 l;
- model of pump used - PN-40U;
- max speed 80km/h;
- number of seats for combat crew - 7 with driver;
- fuel tank capacity - 170 liters;
- fuel consumption - 40 liters for every 100 kilometers;
- vehicle length - 7640 mm;
- width - 2550 mm;
- transport height -2950 mm.
The AC-40 ZIL-131 car, the performance characteristics of which were indicated above, first left the factory assembly line in 1969. Serial production of the car lasted from 1970 to 1984. During the period of operation of the truck, such shortcomings as poor fastening of the breakwaters located inside the tank, unsatisfactory fasteningthe tank itself directly to the frame, which eventually led to deformation and fluid leakage.
Over the entire period of ZIL-131 production, more than 1 million vehicles in various modifications were produced. In addition to using the car on the territory of the USSR, it was actively acquired by the states of Asia and Africa. It is also worth noting that the truck itself has never been produced in a diesel version.