ZIL-131 - a car with a military bearing
People of the older generation who served in the Soviet Army remember well and know what this truck is like. After all, a significant part of these machines was produced specifically for military needs, which naturally affected their technical characteristics.
Production on an industrial scale was established in 1966. Then, after the adoption of the next seven-year plan at the 21st Extraordinary Congress of the CPSU in 1959, there was a tendency for the domestic auto industry to lag behind the automotive industry of the West. Therefore, considerable efforts and funds were thrown into the development of a new machine with an increased cross-country ability index.
The military liked the new truck so much that its production ended in 1986. However, he gave impetus to the development of a rich "offspring", based on the modifications of this car, a huge number of different models were built.
The petrol V-shaped “eight” (8-cylinder) tested on the previous ZIL-130 car was chosen as the engine. However, the engineers made a useful change to it - a preheater was installed, which accelerated the start of the power unit in cold conditions.ambient temperature.
The undercarriage has been practically re-created. ZIL-131 received three axles, all leading. However, the designers made only two rear ones permanently leading, the front one is turned on automatically or forcibly by means of an electro-pneumatic actuator.
The transmission of power from the engine to the 5-speed manual gearbox is carried out by a dry single-plate clutch mechanism.
To facilitate the work of the driver in difficult road conditions, the car has a power steering. Brake system pneumatic.
The suspension worked well. Its basis is semi-elliptical springs, hydraulic shock absorbers help smooth out vibrations. The ZIL-131 suspension system has earned a lot of positive feedback over the years of operation of the machines.
Reliable assistant to a soldier…
Many modifications were built on the basis of the ZIL-131 chassis. For example, multiple launch rocket systems, field repair shops or fuel barrels were installed. The air force was especially fond of tankers, so every airport had these vehicles.
Besides the Soviet Union, this model worked in many countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, as a large number of cars were exported.
… and entrepreneur
After the collapse of the USSR, commercial structures began to massively buy cars for their needs. Equipment that was unnecessary for a peaceful person was removed from trucks, andthey continued to keep the "watch".
To improve the quality and taking into account changes in demand, fuel prices, many entrepreneurs began to change the factory gasoline engine ZIL-131. Diesel has become a more acceptable and desirable option. There are even specialized service stations that do this kind of work.
Reliable and powerful military "old man" cheerfully drives on the roads these days. And, apparently, he is clearly not going to retire.