In the history of the domestic auto industry, one can note the same number of both successful developments and unsuccessful ones, both large plants and not very large ones. But in any case, the plant them. Likhachev - Moscow ZIL - will stand apart. All of his models that have gone into mass production have consistently become successful.
What association arises at the mention of the ZIL brand? Most often, this is a bonnet truck with round headlights, which even in the 21st century is called the ZIL-130. But many years have passed since the release of the last 130th assembly line. It was replaced by 431410 ZIL as a flatbed truck. And 431412 ZIL - as a chassis for installing many other body options. Today's review will be about these two models.
Until now, the name we see is due to the fact that for more than half a century of the existence of this brand, modernization by the Zilovites was carried out only from the inside. Appearance changed little or not at all. For example, the picture above shows ZIL 431410 - an onboard version, and just below these lines - an automobile crane (as they say in the specifications), madebased on the chassis of the same ZIL.
The difference between both cars is only in the body part. Before remains the same - the hood, round headlights. Machines used by public utilities, such as watering and washing options, also now use version 431412. At the same time, the old ZIL-130 can also be found on the streets, although more than 30 years have passed since the plant switched to a new machine in 1984.
The date of birth of the 130th truck is considered to be 1964, when the first modernized ZIL-130 rolled off the assembly line. Until 1984, he was the main model of the plant. In 1984, two new versions are produced with the old hood, but with a new filling. The onboard one comes out first, and as a side branch - a truck without a body (chassis). The first was called 431410 ZIL, and the tasks of the second were forced to recycle the already approved stuffing, and as a result, the chassis became 431412 ZIL, and not just another modernization of the flatbed car.
But few people remember another ZIL, born at the plant around the same time. It received a cabover configuration - a bold decision for that time, and in 1977 the entire development of this model moved to Naberezhnye Chelny, subsequently receiving the name KamAZ, and Muscovites returned to the production of ZIL-130, which they produced until 1984.
It is interesting that the side branch, like the main variant, although it received numbers from the Moscow plant, was practically not assembled on it. In those years, the principle of developing additional equipment at other enterprises was applied, so 431412 ZIL left withfactory, barely approved the design. More precisely, cabins and frames were still assembled at the parent company, but such versions were not on sale, but were sent straight to other factories, where they received additional equipment.
The first use of the first 130th, and then the upgraded version can be called KA-2215, which was deciphered as an automobile crane. Then, with the introduction of a general indexing of cranes (which is still used today), he received the name KBA-2215. The letter "B" meant "tower". Then came other modifications, of which there were a great many over the 10 years of using the new chassis.
Unlike the previous version, the new model received a 5-speed gearbox, with all (except the first) synchronized gears and a Zilov-designed motor. The engine gave 150 hp. and paired with its own box gave out quite good performance for that time. From the old model, a single-plate clutch with pressure springs along the periphery and a two-chamber carburetor passed. You can also note the air filter with double air purification.
The car had a high cross-country ability, thanks to the design of single wheels and the tire pressure regulation system, which had already become widespread by that time.
Over the 10 years of use, the car has been repeatedly upgraded to meet the requirements of a variety of additional equipment, and the final characteristic of the ZIL-431412 turned outnext:
- motor - ZIL-508.10 (150 HP);
- carrying capacity 6,800 kg (in later versions due to the reinforced frame up to 10,000);
- maximum speed - 90 km/h;
- flow - 26 l;
- fuel - AI-76;
- tank - 170 l;
- power steering;
- three brake systems, another one was going to connect the road train.
Normal operation meant 26 liters of antifreeze (in cooling systems), 9 liters of M6 or M8 oil (for the engine) and a 6ST-90 battery. The total mass of the ZIL-431412 was almost 12,000 kg, but it directly depended on the additional equipment used.
Application and based models
In addition to the truck crane already described, the KS-2561 (self-propelled crane) and other equipment used for public utilities were also assembled on the upgraded chassis. For example, aerial platforms, watering machines, asph alt distributors.
Ks2561K has been widely used in low-rise construction due to its simplicity, reliability and quick installation. In the basic configuration, the crane has an 8 m boom (with the possibility of extension up to 12 m thanks to a special insert). Crane drive from the car engine through the transmission. The boom, load and slewing mechanism have their own braking systems. In addition to lifting 8 (or 12) meters, the load can be lowered to a depth of 5 meters or moved with it on a hook.
The tanker installed on the ZIL-431412 chassis could be used on watering vehicles (water supply), for transporting products(milk or water). Tank trucks are widely used for transporting fuel (gas stations and mobile filling stations).
One of the solutions based on this model was an aerial platform designed to carry out any work at a certain height. It was a two-part construction arranged like a truck crane, only a hydraulic structure with a mounting cradle was used instead of an arrow. The lifting part consisted of two parts and could lift the basket to a height of up to 22 m. The weight of the cradle and the volume were calculated so that two people could work in it without interfering with each other. For fastening the lifting structure during movement on the roads, special blocks were installed above the cabin roof, the same as for fastening a conventional crane boom. As with the crane, the aerial platform was provided with the ability to set additional hydraulic supports to increase stability.
The development of 130 ZIL entailed a whole list of possible modifications of both the machine itself and additional parts. Many devices developed on the basis of the 130th successfully continued to be used on the chassis of the new model - 431412 ZIL.