2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:36
When it comes to the domestic auto industry, the first thing that comes to mind is the models of the Volga Automobile Plant. The most recognizable car of our time from AvtoVAZ is the Lada Kalina. It is produced both for export and for the domestic market. The difference between these modifications is significant, so there is no point in comparing them. In technical terms, the car has very good performance, if only because it is designed for domestic roads, and this already says a lot.
The development of the Russian car industry, which in Soviet times became famous thanks to the following cars: Moskvich and Zhiguli, began in the 19th century. Before the emergence of the Union of Republics, the industry got up on its feet several times and immediately fell, and only by 1960 it began to live to the fullest - mass motorization was launched. From the crisis that followed immediately after the collapse of the USSR, with difficulty, but the Russian auto industry got out. And now one of the largest manufacturers, whichshowed the world the car Lada Kalina - this is the brainchild of AvtoVAZ. Although in Russia it is increasingly possible to meet a foreign car, every second car is a copy of domestic production. This shows the patriotism and love of the population for the motherland, as well as how much cheaper VAZ cars are compared to foreign ones. You can read more history below.
Russian automotive industry before 1917
The first Russian cars began to appear in 1896. It was from that time that the domestic auto industry began to develop. The first model had an internal combustion engine and appeared in that year. Evgeny Yakovlev and Petr Frese "represented" her in public.
After such an event, the first private firms appear in Russia, which represent the Russian auto industry of that time. However, all of them are already very soon changing their activities. By 1912, only two operating companies remained afloat. We are talking about the Russian-B altic Carriage Works and the Puzyrev plant. The first was located in Riga, the second - in St. Petersburg. RBVZ happened to produce its first copy of the transport in 1909, while RAZIPP began to function in 1911. Four years later, the second plant burned down, and after a short period of time, its founder also died. RBVZ, due to the military operations approaching Riga, was divided into several branches: one was located in St. Petersburg (aircraft assembly was established here), the second - in Tver.
The Russian auto industry began to develop at an accelerated pace due to the outbreak of World War Iwar. And all thanks to the fact that the need for additional equipment has greatly increased. The government issued a decree on the establishment of six factories. About 11 million rubles were allocated for their construction. According to the calculations of the authorities, the total production was to be 10 thousand cars per year. However, these plans ended tragically. After the revolution of 1917 and subsequent inflation, the collapse of the transport system in Russia, the construction of factories was not completed. In the end, the state had only one conveyor, from which light and heavy equipment descended. In 1917, almost 500 cars were assembled at the Moscow plant. After the situation improved, the authorities decided to resume the construction of those assembly points. But only two of them have retained their specialization over time.
Russia within the USSR
Russian cars changed noticeably during their stay in the Soviet Union. The moment of release of the F-15 truck by the Moscow plant is considered to be the starting point for the development of the automotive industry. A little later AMO was renamed. After the reconstruction, the plant began to produce trucks under license. In Nizhny Novgorod, which was better known as Gorky, NAZ was then built. This plant, using permission from the American company Ford, began to produce trucks and cars. The created companies were able to become the national dignity of the Soviet Union, and the released Zhiguli car became a symbol of the same state. Together with smaller car brands, the Russian car industry came out on top in Europe, in the world it tooksecond position in the truck category. Before the start of the conflict situation on the territory of the USSR, more than 1 million copies were produced within the framework of the Second World War.
Until the 70s, the development of the automotive industry proceeded at an intensive pace. At the same time, for the most part, Russian cars were a huge number of trucks - it was their production that was given preference.
The population began to acquire personal cars by the time Italy decided to build a VAZ on the territory of the Union. The plant worked at a fairly fast pace. Initially, 660 thousand copies were produced per year, then, closer to the 80s, this figure increased to 730 thousand. And, of course, the Zhiguli car accounted for the lion's share in this indicator. Along with it, the Niva was also produced. The same plant was the first to produce a hatchback off the assembly line in the USSR.
In 1969, the construction of KamAZ began, it was completed by 1976. It was he who made it possible to transfer many Soviet cars to diesel power mechanisms. According to the plan, the plant produced 150 thousand trucks and 250 thousand units per year.
Thanks to the good support from the government and the joint efforts of all factories, by 1980 the USSR ranked in the world:
- First place in the production of bus vehicles.
- Third in truck production.
- Fifth place in total production. Here, Russian cars gave way to Japanese, American, German and French counterparts.
And even with the crisis, the Russian auto industry continued to please the domestic buyer with perfect new brands of cars. In ittime, production ceased to increase in size, there was a shortage of spare parts. The leadership of the USSR gradually faded away. But it was during this period that the world saw such “eternal” models as Moskvich, Sputnik, Oka, Tavria and some trucks.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the fate of the Russian car industry, Ukrainian and Belarusian went their separate ways.
Modern auto industry of Russia
The crisis that broke out after the reforms of 1992 practically stopped the work of the entire Russian automobile industry. The pace of production, the number of assembled cars were reduced. Even those who produced inexpensive copies at cost, suspended their activities. This was due to terrible economic and financial problems. We can say that only really strong Russian automakers, time-tested, withstood such a blow to the state. We are talking about VAZ, GAZ and the Likhachev plant. They released truly legendary cars - "Lada", "Volga", "Bull". It was thanks to these series that the crisis was successfully overcome. Although the devaluation of the ruble in 1998 hit the producers noticeably.
Already by 2002, the assembly of foreign models was in full swing in the state. By this time, more than a dozen foreign branches have been opened in the state. Among cars, their share was 40%. In 2010, the plan was to produce 1 million foreign copies per year.
Now the Russian Federation is included in the list of 15 best manufacturers in the world. More than 50 automobile plants have been opened on the territory of the state.
Best domestic car
If we consider truly the best car produced in the USSR, then it is necessary to focus on the one that received the service index "M-20". That's right, we are talking about "Victory". It was produced at the Gorky plant from 1946 to 1958. Approximately 240,000 copies were made before production stopped.
The car had stunning shapes that attracted buyers. It should be noted high permeability, good stability. The maximum speed slightly exceeded the mark of 100 km / h. It was such a car that the Soviet people who survived the war needed. The main drawback of the car, many called its engine. Indeed, the M-20 model was very reliable, but unstable in terms of the operation of the power unit. Although he was distinguished by durability, but, frankly, he was rather weak for this kind of machine.
The most expensive Russian car in Soviet times
It should be noted ZIS-110, which belongs to the class of executive cars. Its production was started in the year of the end of the Second World War. And in 1958 it was replaced by another car of the same series. When the plant received the name of Likhachev, its name changed slightly - ZIL-110. Over the entire period of production, a little more than 2 thousand copies of all assemblies were released.
The Soviet buyer has always noted the elegance of this car, as well as the beauty of the body. The installed engine had 8 cylinders and worked on 4 cycles. Its power is 180 horsepower.
This car can be put in line with Pobeda. The only difference between them is that the M-20 is more suitable for the middle class of the population because of the pricing policy, and the described one is for the upper class.
The safest Russian car
The new "UAZ Patriot" (or UAZ-3163) confidently takes the lead among the most reliable cars in Russia. The SUV has all the necessary options, functions and characteristics that are necessary for driving on Russian roads. The car has five doors, as well as an increased level of capacity both in the luggage compartment and in the passenger compartment. "Patriot" is great for driving in the countryside, which already adds additional advantages to it when compared with other domestic-made SUVs. The series has been produced since 2005 by the Ulyanovsk plant. In addition to excellent technical characteristics, it has a very impressive appearance, and attracts serious people, because it is made in minimalism.
Reliable Russian car
Any resident of Russia will note in this category a VAZ-made car. Of course, we are talking about the Zhiguli car, which is better known as the "penny". It is not surprising, because after such a long time since the beginning of its release, it still travels along Russian roads to this day. Every third car in Russia is a Zhiguli. Worth considering.
The most beautiful car
"The Seagull" wins one hundred percent in this nomination among all domestic cars. It was produced at Gorkyfactory. And it went down in history as the car that officials constantly drove. They were attracted by the beautiful and aesthetic appearance.
Best Russian car
"Lada Priora", according to many motorists, is the best. It is especially liked by modern buyers who do not chase too new and fancy copies. This model has power steering, excellent suspension and air conditioning.
Oka can be noted as an economical car. VAZ products have always been inexpensive, but this model turned out to be the cheapest. Moreover, it also has impressive features, as for a budget employee.
KAMAZ: dump truck
No wonder that KamAZ is one of the best manufacturers in Russia when it comes to trucks. They are used in almost all industries: agricultural, municipal, construction. In 2010, the series was re-equipped with a new cabin, which was distinguished by increased convenience. The KamAZ series (dump truck) is impressive. Each of the models has its own distinctive features. The approximate price of one of these overall machines is 170 thousand rubles. Cars are good on standard roads, but not good on off-road.
Fire trucks are undoubtedly needed all the time. They must have amazing technical characteristics. This is one of the types of machines in which external data is completely unimportant. For a long time, cars for fire stations were produced for the USSR by the Likhachev plant. Over time, they have been improved in every aspect. Firefighter ZIL became the best example for the USSR.
Zil 130 was produced for almost 20 years during the Soviet Union. In 1984, it was replaced by Zil 431410. And although outwardly they did not differ much, nevertheless, model 431410 became a newer car, with greater capabilities, and it is precisely this that many mistakenly still call the 130th
Now one of the most popular types of cars is an SUV. The Russian auto industry is known, so to speak, not for the most powerful and high-quality models. But cars, characterized by increased cross-country ability, are produced quite successfully on the territory of our country. And they boast good performance
In the 1980s, the US military put out a tender for an off-road vehicle for its own use. It was for this purpose that the Lamborghini jeep was created. The model was named LM002
Ural Automobile Plant today boasts almost half a century of history. Even before the start of the war, in 1941, the construction of production buildings began, and in March of the following year, the enterprise began its successful work
Special fire trucks today are constantly being improved, this helps to increase the efficiency of various tasks. There are many models designed to extinguish fires, it is worth understanding the most common