Combat operations in local conflicts and wars are characterized by armed confrontation between communications and technology. A set of technical and organizational measures is carried out to ensure the safe passage of columns along the established traffic routes. Increasing the protection of vehicles from enemy fire is one of these measures.
Armored vehicles "Ural-4320"
Military units of the Russian Armed Forces during the first Chechen campaign received a certain number of armored vehicles of this modification with local protection. The practical use of cars immediately received positive reviews, despite the imperfection of the design.
In the course of the second Chechen campaign and counter-terrorist operations conducted in the North Caucasus region, the experience gained was taken into account. Joint grouping of troops, including bodies and military units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation andtroops of the Ministry of Defense, received a large number of armored "Urals-4320".
The same design of all cars affected the booking method, made according to a single model:
- The front of the car is completely closed on three sides.
- The driver's cab is protected by armor plates. Ordinary glass is being replaced with smaller bulletproof glass blocks.
- The fuel tank and the main elements of the transmission are covered with armor plates.
- A box assembled from steel armor plates is installed in the back. In the stern there is a double door, closed from the inside.
Armored "Urals" in Chechnya were operated without awnings and were painted in a monochromatic dark green color, faded in the sun. In front of the armored boxes, machine-gun armament was often installed - heavy machine guns NSV "Utes" or 7.62 mm PKM.
Ural armored vehicles equipped with round barbettes and placed at the disposal of military formations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation were painted in a similar dark green shade, faded in the sun. You can often find cars painted in a dark yellow solid color.
Armored "Urals" "Typhoon" - a family of armored vehicles with a high level of protection, which was developed by 120 enterprises. As a result, three prototypes were produced - KamAZ-63968 "Typhoon-K", KamAZ-63969"Typhoon" and, in fact, "Ural" -63095 "Typhoon-U".
In terms of protection, armored vehicles belong to the MRAP class and are resistant to mines and improvised explosive devices based on high-explosive shells.
Modular multifunctional armored vehicle of the MRAP category with protection against armor-piercing bullets of large caliber 14.5 mm, land mines, improvised explosive devices with a capacity of up to 8 kilograms in TNT equivalent and small arms. It can be used for biological, chemical, engineering and radiation reconnaissance, transportation of personnel (depending on the modification of the armored "Ural" - from 12 to 16 people, not counting the three crew members), sanitary purposes, reconnaissance, electronic warfare.
Technical characteristics of "Typhoon"
The car was built on the basis of a three-axle, frame, bonnet, all-wheel drive chassis. The total mass of the armored "Ural" according to the performance characteristics is 24 tons, the engine power is 450 horsepower. It is paired with a six-speed automatic transmission and a two-speed manual transfer case. An independent hydropneumatic suspension with the ability to adjust the clearance is installed. The tires are equipped with an automatic inflation system and anti-explosion inserts. Steering with two-way hydraulic booster.
Powerful engine and high ground clearance provide excellent cross-country ability: "Ural"it is able to overcome a ford with a depth of 1800 centimeters, a rise of up to 60% and a vertical wall with a height of 0.6 meters. Power reserve - up to 1800 kilometers thanks to two fuel tanks of 300 liters. The armor is combined, made of ceramics and steel, hinged and spaced. The combat module with remote control performs the role of weapons. The loopholes allow you to fire small arms.
A new series of armored "Urals" called "Pokemon" during the Chechen campaign was released by the Ural Automobile Plant in 2014. A demonstration of the equipment was held at a military parade in Moscow a year later. The Ural-63095 was supposed to enter service in 2014, but the event was postponed to 2015 for a number of reasons known only to the military.
The Russian army has modernized Tornado-G launch rocket systems developed on the basis of the Ural-4320 chassis, created in 1977.
Repeated attempts were made to replace the chassis from the armored Ural-4320 with modern designs. For example, in Belarus, on the basis of the MAZ-6317, the MLRS BM-21 "BelGrad" was created. The original chassis, produced by the Ural Automobile Plant, acquired the unified name "Tornado-U" and was specially developed for the "Tornado-S" and "Tornado-G" systems.
Demonstration of an armored vehicle with increased payload"Ural" -63704-0010 "Tornado-U" was held at the International military-technical forum "Army-2015". In the official catalog of the Ural automobile plant, this model is not available due to its initial development for military purposes - the transportation of special equipment and weapons.
The armored car is equipped with the same mechanical transmission and a two-stage transfer case with a locking center differential. Unlike the armored "Ural", the suspension on the "Tornado" is dependent, spring type. The brake system is dual-circuit, with ABS and pneumatic drive. The designers of the Ural plant confirm that only domestic components are used in the assembly of the Tornado-U. For example, the Russian manufacturer of armored glass for Ural Federal.
The main feature of the Tornado armored vehicle is a frame-panel cabin designed for three people and equipped with air conditioning, ventilation and heating systems. Additional protection of the fifth class can be installed on the cab according to GOST 50963-96.
The carrying capacity of the armored "Ural" is 16 tons, curb weight - 30 tons, trailer weight - up to 12 tons. Equipped with a six-cylinder in-line diesel engine with a capacity of 440 horsepower. Clearance - 400 millimeters. Power reserve - 100 kilometers, the ability to overcome fords with a depth of 1.8 meters and climbs up to 60%.
Developed"Urala-VV" was engaged in the Ural Automobile Plant, while the body for the car was created at the Steel Research Institute in Moscow.
The machine is built on the basis of the Ural-4320 chassis with the YAME-536 in-line engine, made in the classic style of the Ural plant. The design of the front panel is unified with the army "Typhoon", the front doors are sheathed with plastic.
Differentiated booking means protecting the windshield and windows according to the sixth class of GOST, the engine compartment - according to the third. Unlike the "Federal-M", the armor of the "BB" is weaker in terms of protection against explosions - it can withstand only two kilograms of TNT.
Features of the armored vehicle
An unusual constructive solution of "BB" is a side reserve with a winch and a rear ladder leaning back with the help of a pneumatic cylinder, which can be unfolded manually. The engine and gearbox are covered with steel protection, which proved its effectiveness during the use of armored "Urals" in Afghanistan and Chechnya.
The decorative hood of the car is made of fiberglass and limits the view. The engine is covered with bolted armor panels. The windshield weighs 350 kilograms, making it impossible to replace in the field.
Technical characteristics of "Ural-VV"
The photos of armored Urals-VVs that appeared after the International Technical Forum were commented on by representatives of the manufacturer. The machine was created on the basis of the chassis"Ural-4320" has a carrying capacity of 3 tons and a weight of 17.3 tons. The maximum weight of the towed trailer is no more than 12 tons. The maximum developed speed is 90 km/h.
The armored "Ural" is equipped with a YaMZ-6565 diesel engine with a capacity of 270 horsepower. Average fuel consumption is 34.5 liters per 100 kilometers at a speed of 60 km/h. The range is 1,100 kilometers thanks to large-capacity fuel tanks.
Paired with the engine is a mechanical transmission and a two-stage transfer case with a locking center differential. The main elements are equipped with a sealing system.
Federal-M armored truck
The upgraded chassis of the highly reliable vehicle "Ural"-4320 and one of its modifications - "Ural"-55571 - served as the basis for the creation of a new protected vehicle "Federal-M". Specialists of the Moscow enterprise "Institute of Special Equipment" conducted tests that confirmed the effectiveness of protection and the declared technical characteristics of the car.
"Federal-M" is designed to transport personnel with a high level of protection against small arms and explosive devices in conditions of any type of road.
The car was armored using ODB-capsule technology (volume-differentiated armored capsule), which provides crew protection and vehicle stability. Depending on the wishes of the customer, the number of doors in the case may varythree to six. The double-leaf swing door of the stern ensures quick boarding and disembarkation of personnel. For the purpose of convenience, a platform and a retractable ladder are installed on the frame of the "Federal-M". The design of the swing door does not imply the presence of a central beam, which simplifies the loading and unloading of transported goods.
Ballistic protection in class 5 is provided by armoring the ODB-capsule. Car body glass, including windshield, provides protection according to class 6A in accordance with GOST R 50963-96. The level of ballistic protection can be increased by the manufacturer to class 6-6A by installing additional armor protection modules outside or inside the hull. Depending on the wishes of the customer, the engine compartment of the "Federal-M" can be equipped with hidden armor, which is associated with the specifics of the functioning of law enforcement agencies. One of its requirements is the absence of frightening or threatening elements in the design and appearance of the special equipment and vehicles used.
Specialists of the "Institute of Special Equipment" specially for the car "Federal-M" have developed anti-fragmentation and anti-ricochet protection of the interior based on aramid fabrics. Transported personnel can fire from regular weapons through lockable loopholes located in armored glass. Similar loopholes are located on the sides of the armored hull and the aft door. In total, the car is equipped with 17 loopholes, which allows you to fire 360 degrees and makes it possiblerepel an enemy attack from any direction.
The high concentration of powder gases during firing is leveled out thanks to the gas removal system: fans are located in the roof, operating in the injection and exhaust modes. Technological and ventilation hatches are used for a similar purpose. At the request of the customer, additional weapons can be installed on the mentioned hatches. A remote-controlled combat module, represented by an automatic grenade launcher or a machine gun, can be placed on the roof of the vehicle.
The bottom of the ODB-capsule is equipped with anti-mine "sandwiches" and is made in a V-shape, which increases the anti-mine protection of the vehicle. The floor surface is located at a height of 1.3 meters from the ground, which provides additional protection. In the cabin, anti-mine seats are installed, the development and testing of which was carried out by specialists from the Institute of Special Equipment. An additional raised floor that does not come into contact with the bottom of the cabin prevents injury to the legs of the transported personnel in the event of explosions on mines and explosive devices.
The design of the Federal-M vehicle uses a wide range of anti-mine protection measures, providing the crew and personnel with the opportunity to conduct fire operations and continue the combat mission when the vehicle is blown up by explosive devices with a capacity of 3 to 10 kilograms of TNT.
A series of armored "Urals" provided a high level of protection for personnel and crew duringcombat operations in Chechnya and Afghanistan. The updated line of armored vehicles is effectively used by the Russian military forces in hot spots.