When the automotive industry was in its infancy, there was already a question of safety. And since about 80% of accidents occur precisely in cars, this is an extremely relevant topic. Engineers from all over the world have worked and are still doing it, which has borne fruit. Currently, car safety is very important, we will talk about this in this article.
Some general information
First of all, I would like to consider the active security systems of the car. After all, it is they who are designed not only to protect passengers upon impact, but to reduce the chance of getting into an accident. Thus, the following elements should be attributed to modern active systems:
- anti-lock, anti-skid, stability control systems, etc.;
- sun visors, heated windows, headlight and windshield washer;
- anatomical seats.
Actually, all these elements together are called active safety. CostsIt should be noted that every year about one million people die in road traffic accidents and about 500 thousand remain disabled. If active safety systems work properly in the car, then the risk of getting into an accident is already significantly reduced. The machine does not become uncontrollable during sudden braking, acceleration, slipping or skidding. But much also depends on the correct operation of the mechanisms.
Passive car safety
If an accident cannot be avoided, there is still an opportunity to significantly reduce the severity of an accident. It is for the preservation of human life that passive systems are responsible. This, as you probably guessed, is about airbags. That's right, it is on them that the lives of people in the car depend to a greater extent. But there are a number of other important factors. For example, the rigidity of the body. The higher it is, the less deformation upon impact. Another important point is the different strength of body parts. For example, the front and back are always softer, which is necessary to absorb shock. The middle, where the passengers and the driver are, is as rigid and durable as possible.
All modern automakers install the engine and gearbox on a lever suspension. As practice has shown, in a head-on collision, the engine and gearbox leaving the cabin very often lead to death. Therefore, at present, during a frontal impact, the internal combustion engine drops and goes under the floor. This solution reduces the level of deformation of the front passenger and driver seats.
Seat belts have for many years been one of the most effective means of protecting all car occupants from critical injury. Along with airbags, the system shows really high performance. But even here there are a number of requirements that must be met. They look like this:
- while driving, you can not put your feet on the dashboard;
- passenger and driver must sit straight, it is not allowed to lean their head on the side stand;
- children under 12 are not allowed to sit in the front seats, this is due to the growth of children, when the pillow hits the head, which can lead to death.
This is not a complete set of requirements and rules that must be followed in order to achieve maximum efficiency. But you need to understand that the passive safety of the car often saves the lives of drivers and passengers.
Currently, this is one of the main systems designed to protect people in the car from critical damage. The basics of car safety include the presence of airbags. Their number may vary depending on the configuration and class of car. But even in the database there are always two pillows - the driver's and the front passenger. Their principle of operation is extremely simple. A special sensor is installed in the bumper of the car, which determines the angle and force of impact. Such sensors are placed on different parts of the car, on the side andbehind.
Through the sensor, information is transmitted to the squib, which leads to its sharp operation. A large amount of gas is released, which leads to a sharp increase in the size of the pillow. In the inflated state, it is only a couple of seconds. In order not to suffocate a person, it releases pressure almost immediately through special openings. Currently, there are many types of pillows with different characteristics. For example, the BMW side curtains hold pressure for about 10 seconds, which is necessary to protect passengers in case of repeated rollover of the car.
The best of the best
The car safety rating includes only those models that received high scores in crash tests. For example, Volvo took the first place among urban crossovers. The XC90 scored 5/5. In second place were the Germans and the Japanese. The first - on Q5, and the second - on the Outlander. The third place was taken by the company "Hyundai" with its model "Santa Fe".
As for small sedans, which are in great demand in Russia, there is also a rating here. It looks like this:
- first place - "Kia Rio";
- second place - Renault Sandero;
- third place - "Volkswagen Polo" in the top configuration.
As for the domestic auto industry, most of the models were not included in the rating. Good results were shown by the new "Vesta". She can be consideredthe best in safety among domestic cars.
As for the business class, the Audi A6, Genesis G80 and Mercedes E-class are included in the car safety rating. Accordingly, Audi can be proud of their cars, because they really save lives even in the most serious accidents.
Importance of car maintenance
Not always everything depends on the active safety of the vehicle. Car maintenance plays an important role. For example, the manufacturer indicates a clear timeframe for replacing ball joints. If the latter fail, then they can be pulled out of the seat. This causes the wheel to fall out. In this case, it is impossible to predict the trajectory of the car.
Another aspect is tire pressure and condition. As practice shows, sharp tires fail extremely rarely. Usually this is facilitated by excessive load or increased pressure in the wheel. In general, the technical safety of the car plays a big role. You can not joke with the brakes, neglecting their timely maintenance. This also applies to other vehicle systems.
About security requirements
Any driver who is a road user must follow basic safety rules. All the rules are taught during the course of law training. There are safety requirements for the operation of the car, whichinclude a number of actions of a certain sequence when starting and moving, as well as stopping the vehicle. In addition, there are requirements for the technical condition of the car. For example, the performance of the parking brake, the he alth of the wipers and the integrity of the windshield.
Tips for motorists
Many drivers neglect basic safety rules while driving. For example, do not use seat belts. This leads to the fact that on most cars before 2010, airbags do not work. This is due to the fact that they do not work when the driver is not wearing a seatbelt. More modern cars are equipped with special sensors in the seats, which determine by weight whether there is a passenger in the seat or not. Based on these data, pillows work.
Therefore, the simplest and most effective thing that can be recommended is to follow the safety rules specified by the manufacturer, do not violate the speed limit established on a certain section of the road, etc. In any case, you should not always rely on the car and your reaction. Sometimes the technique fails, and the experience turns out to be unimportant.
Certainly, there are certain car safety issues at present. In particular, we are talking about information security rather than technical security. The fact is that modern vehicles are equipped with Wi-Fi interfaces. Often hackers use special programsfor hacking and theft of personal data. Some utilities allow you to remotely control some of the car's functions. For example, unlocking and locking doors, starting the engine, etc.
But not so much depends on the driver. Therefore, engineers from leading companies are trying to protect the electronics of the vehicle as much as possible. Of course, choosing a car based on its level of safety is also impractical. After all, it is not at all a fact that you will get into an accident at least once during your driving career. Although the safety rating of cars still says something about which manufacturer pays more attention to this aspect. The leaders in the industry are companies such as Volvo and BMW. But now almost all vehicles moving on the roads meet even the minimum requirements for car safety. If, along with this, you follow the rules of the road, then the risk of getting into an accident is reduced significantly. The main cause of traffic accidents is inattention, disregard for traffic rules and drunk driving.