2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:36
Mankind has been engaged in mining in various forms for thousands of years. It would seem that today the process should be automated at all, so that robots perform work operations. Nevertheless, due to the specifics of the technology of mining minerals at remote deposits, heavy transport, which impresses with its size and functionality, still remains relevant. Therefore, mining machines are not just a utilitarian tool of narrow specialization, but also in some way a work of engineering art. The largest engineering giants are working on the development of the characteristics of this technology, as a result of which, at different intervals, real champions in size and weight are released.
Main manufacturers of mining equipment
Work in the segment of large trucks with the capabilities of a dump truck can afford not every manufacturer of vehicles as such. This requires not only high manufacturing capacity, but also a research and engineering capability that can take decades to develop. Belarusian machines regularly take the lead in terms of performance characteristics - mining"BelAZ", which are also distinguished by high carrying capacity, weight and the presence of technological controls.
Direct competition is made by German off-road dump trucks Liebherr and American products Caterpillar. The Terex concern is also actively strengthening its position, in the family of which a whole scattering of high-performance trucks has appeared in recent years. From time to time, dump truck models that are successful in terms of power and performance are produced by Euclid, Volvo and the Japanese Komatsu.
The model was released in 2013 and is positioned as a dump truck of the highest load category. Without exaggeration, this is the largest mining machine in the world. The photo above shows its impressive size. According to the manufacturer and official documentation, this version is capable of lifting 450 tons. However, in 2014, an absolute record was set at the test site - 503.5 tons. Considering that the machine itself weighs 360 tons, the load on the power plant and structure was 863 t.
Obviously, not every engine can cope with such a weight, even by the standards of the dump truck segment. The developers used a diesel-electric power complex, which involves several functional blocks. For example, the power potential of two diesel units is 2330 liters. With. As for the dimensions, the BelAZ mining vehicle of this version has a length of 20 m, a height of more than 8 m and a width of about 10 m. The machine is equipped with shock absorbers170 mm diameter, 63/50 wheels and 59/80R63 tires. The fuel tank capacity is 2800 liters, and the truck has two capacities.
A rather old model, released back in 2004, but even by today's standards, against the background of the characteristics of other career equipment, it looks decent. The carrying capacity of the German dump truck is 363 tons. Compared to the offer of BelAZ, the figure is not high, but this gap is applicable to other representatives of the segment. With a dead weight of 252 tons, the machine is capable of handling a maximum operating weight of 600 tons.
The overall parameters of the dump truck are as follows: length 15.3 m, height about 8 m and width - 9.5 m. That is, the Belarusian competitor has a significant advantage both in size and in load capacity. However, Liebherr mining machines stand out for their state-of-the-art technology. So, if the traditional mechanics of controlling the working bodies of a truck involves the use of a dashboard in combination with levers, then the T282B operator interacts with the equipment through an ergonomic and functional display.
Also far from being a new development from American designers, and this once again confirms that large mining equipment with increased technical and physical parameters appears infrequently. However, the example of this truck shows the dynamics of the development of the model as the modifications improve. The basic version 797, released in 2002, was replaced by a car797B with a capacity of 345 tons, 18 tons more than the first generation.
In 2009, Caterpillar released an even more productive machine, the 797F mining truck, which can lift 363 tons, just like the German competitor T282B. Against the background of expanding lifting capabilities, the power potential also increased. For example, a 24-cylinder diesel unit provides 3370 hp. With. An important difference between the 797F version and previous models is the speed limit, which is 68 km / h. The gap from other machines in this group is small, but even 3-4 km / h can make a difference in this area of application of transport technology.
The product of Canadian specialists, which, perhaps, has the richest biography of all the trucks presented in the review. The model left the assembly line in 1974 and it is not surprising that in its time it was the largest and most lifting machine for a long time. With a mass of 235 tons, the design and power units of the Terex 33-19 provided a lift of 350 tons, which is still a high figure today.
Also, in terms of size, the Canadian dump truck does not lag behind the modern champion from Belarus. The length of the mining machine is also 20 m, and the height is 7 meters. Moreover, with a raised unloading compartment, the height will reach 17 m. But, of course, the technological backwardness of those times also could not but leave its mark. A diesel plant with a group of electric motors with a working volume of about 170 liters was able to provide a maximum speed of no more than 50 km / h, which is a very weak indicator these days.
Komatsu 930E-3 SE
Keep up with the fashion for large lifting machines and Japanese machine builders. Komatsu is famous for its small-sized loaders - stackers, forklifts and various trucks. But the example of a full-fledged quarry vehicle, the photo of which is shown above, also confirms the manufacturer's success in developing large trucks. The model copes with a mass of about 290 tons, and the full operational load can be 500 tons. The power potential of the machine is 3014 liters. With. with an engine capacity of 4542 l.
The advantages of the 930 E-3 SE include a high degree of reliability, build quality and durability of the structural element base. However, the sharpness of Japanese specialists for small-format forklifts still made itself felt. The weak point of the truck was precisely the massive body, which is poorly controlled and does not allow complex maneuvers.
Also an interesting development, featuring high technical and operational performance and a decent load capacity. By the way, the last parameter is 350 tons. We can say that this is a standard and unremarkable indicator, but compared to many of the above representatives of the segment, it is achieved with a smaller power resource - 2596 liters. With. with a total volume of engine cylinders of 3633 l.
As for the design, we can talk about the opposite qualities with respect to the Japanese car discussed above. XCMG mining equipment has approximately the same dimensions, but does notrestricts movement. The cross-country ability of this version of the dump truck is its main advantage, allowing it to work in coal, hard stone and sand deposits. Reliability during movement is facilitated by modern balancing of the elements of the carrier base, as well as a computer trajectory control system with the ability to lock the wheels.
Another car from Japan. The Euclid brand is little known to a wide audience, but it is overseen by Hitachi, one of the world's largest manufacturers of machinery and equipment. The manufacturer's EH series includes 12 models, the most powerful of which, the EH5000, is capable of lifting about 320 tons. The geometric volume of the equipment is 197 m3, and the power potential is 2013 kW. The special features of this truck include increased structural strength.
The walls of the body of large mining machines of the EH family are made on the basis of wear-resistant steel Hardox 400. The thickness of the body elements varies from 8 (visor) to 26 mm (bottom). It has its own characteristics and proprietary Euclid suspension with Neocon shock absorbers. This combination functions on the principle of compressing the working fluid medium, which increases both the reliability and productivity of the equipment - suffice it to say that the operation of the undercarriage is increased by 20-25% thanks to this solution.
It is worth noting again the advantages of the Belarusian automobile industry, but on the example of the younger version of the dump truck. This modification easily serves 320 tons with a maximum load of 560t. The length of the car is 15 m, which is 5 m less than the record holder in the class. As for the power plant, it is formed by a V-shaped 18-cylinder turbodiesel with 78 hp. Power output is 3546 liters. s.
In other words, this is a standard dump truck from the 300-ton line. This is not the largest, but in its segment one of the most productive mining machines in the world. The photo below shows the original circuit of the engines, which, among other things, are assembled from Siemens electrical installations with a power of 1.2 kW. Thanks to this installation, the equipment is capable, on the one hand, of delivering a torque of 13771 Nm, and on the other hand, of providing speeds of up to 64 km/h.
Volvo dump trucks
The Swedish manufacturer does not claim to be a leader in this list, but its products deserve attention due to the many original technological solutions used specifically in trucks. We are talking about series with indices G and H. The first was formed in 2014, and the second company promises in the near future.
As for the G-family, it includes dump trucks with Tier 4 Final engines, providing a maximum payload of 35-40 tons. The H series is expected to be Volvo's most productive mining machine of the A60H modification. Its carrying capacity should be at least 60 tons. As you can see, these indicators are seriously inferior to the capabilities of the considered giants, but low technical and operational characteristics are compensated by maneuverability,proprietary telematics systems and advanced functionality.
The general segment of mining equipment is not at all the most advanced in terms of high technical parameters. There are also all kinds of tractors, industrial transporters and conventional large-format trucks operating on asph alt roads. But it is dump trucks that demonstrate the highest carrying capacity and overall dimensions. At least in this category, champions appear more often. To date, the largest mining machine is represented by the BelAZ enterprise. It is a massive 20 m long truck capable of practically lifting 500 tons. Remarkably, no competitor even comes close to this performance rating. The main group of high-capacity dump trucks is focused on serving a mass of 300-400 tons. At the same time, according to experts, the 500-ton ceiling will become irrelevant in the near future, as it will be replaced by even more powerful machines with a carrying capacity of 600 tons or more.
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