2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-20 18:31
The audio system is designed to receive audio signals through a microphone, record sound in storage, transmit it via wired or wireless communication channels, and play audio signals through speakers.
Thus, audio circuits perform signal processing to represent sound in the form of electrical signals. She manipulates electrical signals. Such as amplification, filtering or mixing. Stores sound in computer files or plays it from audio files.
Many modern cars come straight from the factory with a flawless stereo that even the pickiest owner can't fault.
In other cases, there is always room for improvement, especially if the car is of mature age. To do this, you absolutely do not need to spend thousands of dollars to get a super system, it is quite possible to get by with a modest amount by doing car audio with your own hands, which will brighten up everythingthe inconvenience of a long road or a sticky traffic jam on a highway.
General elements of creating car audio
To a person who knows little about how a high-quality car audio system is built, the number of components may seem excessive - and this is understandable.
However, if you do not first understand the technology of creating sound, no matter how hard the car enthusiast tries, the end result will be terrible. In addition to creating a cacophony, such a "craftsman" can also completely destroy the system. Therefore, before you start creating car audio with your own hands or reconstructing the system, you need to understand the basic terms and principles of operation of devices.
Typical elements of a sound scheme.
- Main audio devices: AM-FM CD or DVD player, USB I-pod controller, usually mounted on the dash.
- Multimedia audio devices: AM-FM, DVD, CD, USB, Sirius Radio, Bluetooth, LCD screen displays. Backup cameras and external sources can be added.
- DIN - stands for Deutsche Industry Normal for audio devices. The Germans used this size to standardize radio installations for all European cars. The unified standard size is 5 cm high and 18 cm wide.
- Double DIN is double height for one DIN hole: 10x18 cm.
- Storage modules - an electronic adapter for saving a computer chip, installed by the manufacturer, which needs to be replaced,upgrading car audio with your own hands.
- Wired adapter - is a wired connection that allows you to connect secondary devices of the system without dismantling the factory wire.
- Antenna adapter - connector for connecting the factory antenna to the car control panel.
- Dashboard kits are a mounting system designed for use in a factory installed environment to provide aesthetic finishing and centering for audio replacement parts.
- Passive device - any module that does not need an external power source.
- A passive crossover is a device used to separate a full range audio signal at different frequencies. Commonly used at the speaker level to create mids and tweeter sets, or mids and lows in DIY car audio upgrades.
- An active crossover is a device for distributing a full range audio signal into different paths at given frequencies. Used on the audio path of the pre-amplifier. Usually built into amplifiers.
- Time Correction - The ability to delay speaker sound to balance sound in any uneven listening environment.
Car Audio Functions
Special sound settings in cars are different from other multimedia systems, which explains the small space inside the car. In this case, the author of the audio system, performing car audio at home with his own hands, should pay attention tosettings that affect sound quality.
- Frequency in relation to music is the vibration frequency of the air flow. An example is the impact on the drum. When the drum is struck, vibrations in the air are picked up by the ear and translated into noise. If such beats are made 50 times per second, this will correspond to a frequency of 50 Hz.
- The listening bandwidth is a frequency group in the range of 20Hz to 20000Hz. 20 Hz is the lowest bass note and 20,000 Hz is the highest note.
- Audio track - all cables and equipment to which they are connected, including speakers that transmit only audio signals.
In order to install your own system, with the right characteristics of speakers and microphones, you will need competent positioning of equipment, professional installation methods, digital signal processing, accurate system calibration are the minimum set of services that ensure quality.
Audio quality specifications:
- Equal coverage from the main speakers in all seating positions, reducing time delays and reflections.
- Quality speech and musical projections.
- Medium monitor speakers for listening without latency.
- Microphones selected for specific applications (wired/wireless/near/remote).
- Simple cable connectors for complete system control.
- Feedback driver to eliminate sound/beep/thud.
- Effective recording techniques.
- Energy management: on/off,sockets, air conditioners and other devices.
Audio frequency filter
Audio filters are electronic circuits that are designed to boost or cut a specific range of frequency components. This helps eliminate unwanted noise from the audio signal and improve the tone of its output. Filters play an important role in telecommunications and audio electronics.
The simplest filters consist of a resistor and a capacitor, one in series with the signal and the other in parallel. If a do-it-yourself car audio capacitor is connected in parallel, the circuit is a low-pass filter and gradually reduces frequencies beyond a known cutoff point.
Filters are a special type of amplifier or passive circuit that has a frequency dependent output. Based on their design, audio filters are classified into:
- passive filter;
- active filter.
The terms "passive" and "active" are commonly used in the context of electronic components. A component that requires a power supply to operate is called an active component: such as transistors and OPAMs. While electronic ones that do not require any power source for their operation are called passive: such as resistor, capacitor and inductor.
Based on the frequency response and design of filters to be used in circuits when installing car audio at home, they are classified into:
- passive high pass filter;
- active high pass filter;
- passive low pass filter;
- active low pass filter;
- passive bandpass filter;
- active bandpass filter;
- passive band pass filter;
- active band stop filter.
The formula for the frequency of the low-pass filter looks like this: f=1/(RC), where f is the frequency in hertz; R - resistance in ohms; C is the capacitance in farads. Using these relationships, you can easily substitute other resistance and capacitance values to change the filter frequency. At the standard frequency, the signal level is reduced by 3 dB, or about 1/2. For each additional octave or frequency doubling, the signal is reduced to 1/4.
Algorithm for connecting car audio to a car with your own hands:
- connect the labeled "input" cables to the output of an audio source such as a microphone, recorder or MP3 player;
- connect the cable labeled "output" to the input of the audio amplifier, the cutoff frequency of this filter is 100Hz.
The operation of the capacitor in the system
Capacitors are used as support when a power source is needed. When the voltage rises, the capacitor absorbs excess energy and stores it. When the voltage starts to drop, the capacitor will transfer the stored energy to the grid, always maintaining a high voltage. The ability of a capacitor to deliver and absorb energy depends on the input and output energy, the specific characteristics of the transformer used, and other factors.indicators.
Any installation can fit an extra capacitor in a car. It can be added anywhere in line with the main power lead to the amplifiers, preferably the bass amp if more than one is being used. Capacitors are available in sizes from 1 to 10 F and in 2 types - standard and hybrid.
Standard electrolytic models are set at 1 farad for every 1000 watts RMS total system power.
Hybrids look like a small amplifier and are set at 5 farads for every 1000 watts RMS of total system power. The hybrid type is better suited when an extra battery is needed, but scarce space or a low refurbishment budget may preclude this option. A do-it-yourself remote capacitor for car audio is connected to the amplifier in almost the same way as a battery. The positive output of the capacitor is connected to the positive pole of the battery, and the negative output to ground.
The car amplifier serves as a power source for the sound system. Technically, the amplifier modulates the power generated by the car battery. The amplifier specified at the speaker input will fully drive the sound system with low bass and high frequency sounds.
Car Audio Amplifier enhances the richness and overall sound quality of your audio system. The subwoofer controls the low frequencies of the audio system, so that the user receives a clearer and stronger sound. There are twoway to power the subwoofer system, namely active and passive. The passive one is usually powered by a car amplifier, while the active one is powered by a separate battery or computer.
Active amplifier with subwoofer is the most commonly used type of subwoofer and can be found in most vehicles operating in the country. This type of subwoofer is available from most car accessory stores both online and offline. There are many subwoofers that produce accurate bass to enhance the sound of your car stereo, and you can use them to create your own car audio setup.
To connect a passive subwoofer to a car amplifier, use a thick power cord. To connect the battery to the amplifier, ground the power cord, RCA signal cables, and speaker cords. The RCA signal cables connect the main unit to the amplifier, and the speaker connects to the main speakers in the car.
Adding a digital sound processor
A digital sound processor is a microprocessor designed to receive a signal from a source and send it to an amplifier. This device plays a very important role in eliminating any negative changes to audio systems. There are different types of digital sound processors for DIY car audio, each with its own characteristics.
They consist of the following elements.
- Equalizer helpsadjust the music in the car according to personal preferences, as well as the acoustic profile of the car. The purpose of equalizers is to eliminate any distortion that might interfere with the listening experience and smooth out the bandwidth of the audio system.
- Crossover - its job is to separate different frequencies into high, medium and low. These frequencies are then sent to the correct speakers to get the most out of the system. Electronic crossovers give you more control over the sound quality and enhance it.
- Line out converter is suitable for amplifying sound from any factory receiver or accessory in this range. The output volume increases without charging the amplifier, and also helps to reduce the noise level from the audio system, which is used for DIY budget car audio.
- Bass recovery processor expanders are installed in vehicles when at least one subwoofer is installed in the audio system. They help to increase the level of low frequencies and at the same time improve its accuracy. Expander Bass Recovery Processors are ideal for those who listen to low-frequency music or want to increase bass power.
Location of speakers in the doors of VAZ-2107
The front door of a car, without special training, cannot provide perfect sound, especially if the car is equipped with cheap speakers. Installation dimensions do not play too big a role when it comes todesigns of columns attached to the front door and increased in power by several tens of times.
Therefore, before upgrading the VAZ-2107 car audio with your own hands, they are determined with the geometric capabilities of the reconstruction object. The speaker installation space is only 13 cm, which does not allow for an excellent bass register, since such devices cannot reproduce low frequencies and provide high volume. This is especially important if the system consists of front speakers and a subwoofer.
An inexpensive way to put huge loudspeakers in doors is to buy door-mounted speakers with no modifications, making installation easy.
To ensure a good speaker installation, a solid base is needed to accommodate the acoustic elements, soft sound in the door, insulate it and direct the sound to the center of the car. For example, you can use the two-component Nexxt.
In order to create a car audio with your own hands, where to start for a car enthusiast is shown in this algorithm.
- Remove the door trim and install the center sound channel.
- Create a rigid support for the project and attach it to the car door.
- Create acoustic volume.
- The openings of the system are closed with molar tape and glued over with 4 layers of epoxy-treated fiberglass.
- Before you make a car audio with your own hands, make plugs for technological holes.
- Create a plywood podium for the speakers.
- Create the foundationfor medium 16cm bass.
- The base of the podium is screwed tightly to the door, it should be slightly tapered to match the base.
- Fill gaps between rings with glue or liquid nails and paint over with anti-gravity spray.
- Holes are cut into the door trim and into the pocket.
- Connect the podium structure to the pocket and door trim.
Optimization of car audio VAZ-2112 with your own hands
If you need to optimize the factory car audio system VAZ-2112 or replace the old system with something more modern, then you should not contact the server service and overpay someone for the service. A car enthusiast can save money with their own car amplifier installation project.
Beginners often think where to start in order to create a car audio with their own hands, experienced car enthusiasts recommend that they start by installing amplifiers. Most amplifiers come with a complete set of wiring. But if it is not included, then you will need the main power wire, built-in fuse, ground wire, RCA cables, speaker wires, remote turn-on wire and connectors for connecting the head unit, amplifier and speakers.
Recommended to use size wire and fuse from amplifier manufacturer, some devices have wireless connection options.
The actual physical size of the speakers will help determine the size of the amplifier you need to purchase. The usual place to install the amplifier is the trunkcar. However, if space is limited functionally, the car enthusiast should consider installing an amplifier at the rear or between the seats.
Amplifiers generate heat, so there is a need for cooling fans. They should always be placed in a position that provides maximum airflow. If you are installing subwoofer speakers in a box, mounting the amplifier on the side of the box is a good option. Mount them high to avoid damage and maximize airflow.
The next thing to pay attention to is how to route the wiring from the amplifier to the stereo head unit and the power wires to the battery.
It is best to run the wiring under the floor sheathing that runs along the lower thresholds, following the pre-existing cable harnesses if possible. The RCA cables must be routed on the opposite side of the car from the power wires to avoid interference. Consideration must be given to the location of the battery in the engine bay and the most direct path to it using the main power wire.
Amplifier installation algorithm
In most cases, the main power wire to the battery will need to go through a firewall. Wherever possible, existing holes should be used, following the existing cable duct. If this is not possible, you will have to drill a new hole in the firewall.
Preparation and installation.
- Before making car audioyourself, make sure that there is sufficient length of wires. If there is not enough wiring, you need to purchase additionally or find an amplifier that matches the actual wiring. Disconnect the positive battery terminal before starting any work.
- To avoid damage to any components, make sure that there are no devices or wires behind the place where holes are to be drilled.
- Start with a small pilot hole using a steel drill, then drill the hole to the appropriate size.
- Install the rubber bushing so as not to damage the wire with the sharp steel edge of the hole, so the holes are machined to the size of the bushing.
- Paint the bare metal around the hole to avoid rust in it, and place the bushing.
- Install the amplifier in place and mark the mounting holes with a pencil or marker. Check the bottom of all surfaces before drilling and secure the amplifier with machine screws.
- Pull the wires into the appropriate places and cut to size, always leaving a little extra length. A little slack in the cables is better than pulling them tight.
- Strip the insulation from the end of all wires and leave enough space to connect the plug connector. Some systems only require the use of bare wires as a connection.
- Connect the ground wire to a metal point connected to the vehicle's chassis or dedicated ground point.
- Make sure thatground wire connected to bare metal.
- Remove all painted, rusty or dirty surfaces with a file or sandpaper to ensure a good ground before DIY car audio setup.
- Connect the RCA wires, speaker wires and remote turn-on lead from the amplifier to the back of the head unit. If the head unit does not have a remote turn on wire, then it is necessary to connect the amplifier wire to the power wire of the head unit or to another power wire coming from the accessory settings on the ignition switch. This must be done to avoid turning on the amplifier when the ignition is turned off and the vehicle battery is exhausted.
- Connect the front, rear and subwoofer speaker wires from the amplifier to the respective speakers.
- Run the do-it-yourself car audio interconnect cable from the amplifier and make sure it is on the opposite side of the car from the RCA cables through the hole in the firewall - and to the battery.
- Install a line fuse in the power wire, crimping all connections and leads. The fuse holder can be mounted on a solid structure in the engine compartment, depending on its size. To protect the car's electrical system, install the built-in fuse as close to the battery as possible.
- Connect the main power lead of the amplifier to the positive battery terminal.
- Secure all wiring with cable ties.
- Check all transactions,using the subwoofer attenuation balance settings on the head unit to ensure that each individual speaker performs without noise or distortion.
Fixing installation errors
Old parts, incompatible components, and improper installation can cause audio problems in your car. In order to eliminate them in a timely manner, a motorist is recommended to test his car for errors in installing car audio with his own hands on a VAZ or another brand.
- Disconnecting the battery. Before embarking on any car audio project that almost always involves a mix of power and ground wires, make sure the entire sound system is turned off by disconnecting the negative battery terminal. Disconnecting from the ground is just as important as connecting to the mains. If a motorist forgets to disconnect the battery before starting work on the electrical system, he can create the conditions for a short circuit.
- Disable incompatible hardware. It is possible to damage the vehicle's electrical system and even damage new equipment if audio components such as the amplifier and subwoofer are not matched. An incompatible combination of subwoofers and amplifiers can also result in poor sound quality, which usually happens when the amplifier overrides or reduces the power of the subwoofer.
- Check the performance of a DIY circuit for a car audio amplifier. If several amplifiers are installed, check the performancecurrent battery. The vehicle's original electrical system may not have been designed for the high output of high quality aftermarket audio systems. You may need to install larger batteries, alternator, or upgrade wiring to provide enough current.
- Install a reliable cooling system. Since the amplifier can generate a lot of heat, especially when it is overloaded with long periods of high volume music, you need to keep it cool. Overheating the amplifier can lead to sudden muting. This can be avoided by making sure there is sufficient cooling airflow where the amplifier is installed.
- Professional training of the project executor. Having the right tools and knowing how to use them is the main guarantee of a quality system installation. In addition to understanding the technology and terminology of car audio, personnel who repair or rebuild audio systems must have the necessary skills.
The video below will help you figure out how to create a budget car audio with your own hands and where to start for beginners.
If it is still difficult for a car enthusiast to master this science, then for better tuning of car audio it is better to hire a professional and watch him so that you can learn from the experience during the installation process.