Pretty much everyone drives a car these days. But not everyone knows the structure of the car. This article will tell you in general terms which components and assemblies are included in the design of the vehicle. Consider, so to speak, the structure of a car for dummies.
The modern market provides a huge number of models and brands of cars, but almost all passenger cars are built on the same design.
Scheme of the device of a car
Any passenger car consists of the following set of parts:
- A supporting structure called a body.
- Diesel or gasoline internal combustion engine.
- The engine control system.
- Electrical equipment.
A quick review may lead to the conclusion that everything is quite simple. But the above parts are just the general structure of the car. Each of the nodes deserves not just an article, but even a book to be written about it. But there is no point in going deep yet, since the structure of the car forbeginner does not imply many details. The following will describe only those main points that every motorist must know. It must be said that complete ignorance of the device of the machine can lead to serious costs for the repair and maintenance of cars in service centers.
This is the bearing part. Almost all units and components of the car are attached to it. Few people know that the very first car models did not have a body. Everything was attached to the frame, like motorcycles or trucks. But in an effort to reduce weight and make the structure of a passenger car more convenient, manufacturers replaced the frame structure with a body structure. What is the body made of? Its main components:
- The bottom to which various reinforcing elements are welded.
- Front and rear spars.
- Roof of the car.
- Motor compartment.
- Other attachments.
Since the body is a spatial structure, this division can be called very conditional, because all the details are interconnected. So, the bottom with spars is a single whole, which serves as a support for the suspension. Attachments include doors, hood, trunk lid and fenders.
This mechanism consists of a large number of nodes and assemblies. It is with their help that the car is able to move. Since the structure of the car for dummies is described here, you need to get to know the “hodovka” better. What is it made of?
- Drive axles.
- Rear and front suspension.
Most modern passenger cars have MacPherson independent front suspension. This type makes it possible to seriously improve the handling and comfort of the vehicle. Each wheel is attached to the body using its own system. Dependent type of suspension has long been obsolete, but some manufacturers still use it.
Probably everyone knows the purpose of this node, so there will be no too detailed description here. The main purpose is to convert the thermal energy obtained from the burnt fuel into mechanical energy, transmitted through the transmission to the wheels of the car.
The main function of this part is this: it transmits torque from the engine shaft to the wheels of the car. The transmission consists of such nodes as:
- Drive axles.
- Gimbal drive.
The clutch is necessary in order to connect the shafts of the engine and gearbox. With its help, a smooth transmission of torque is ensured. The gearbox is needed in order to change the gear ratio and reduce the load on the engine. The bridge is either installed in the gearbox housing or serves as a rear beam. Depending on this, the car is front-wheel drive or rear-wheel drive. Cardan drive connects the box to the bridgeor wheels.
Consists of the following main units:
- Electrical wiring.
- Engine control system.
- Consumers of electrical energy.
The battery is needed to start the engine and is a source of energy that is renewable. When the engine is not running, the battery powers all the vehicle's energy consumers.
The generator is necessary in order to maintain a constant voltage in the on-board network and recharge the battery.
Wiring is a set of wires that form an on-board network that connects all consumers and sources of electricity.
The engine control system consists of various sensors and an electronic control unit.
Consumers are lights, headlights, starting and ignition systems, power windows and wipers.
Thus, the structure of a car is not so complicated, if you do not go into details. Well, for those who want to learn more about all the details and nodes, it is recommended to look for specialized literature.