The tractor was widely used in agricultural and industrial work, they were produced by many enterprises of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan and distant Siberia, the equipment of the Altai plant was used for work. These were T-4 vehicles, and later T-4A.
Tractors have been assembled in Altai for over 30 years. At the same time, the latest model of the upgraded version went to the customer almost at the turn of the century - in 1998. Altai machines cannot be called fast or quiet units, but their distribution, especially in the eastern regions of the country, was influenced by the fact that it took time and money to deliver equipment from other manufacturers. Large enterprises were located either in Belarus (MTZ) or in Ukraine (UMZ). Based on this, the T-4A tractor was purchased for work in Siberia, the photographs and characteristics of which we will consider.
It is worth noting that the symbol "T" in the name was repeated on cars of different factories, so you should not look for some kind of parallel here, following the example of VAZ (Volzhsky Automobile Plant). What is a brief description of the T-4A tractor? It's a tractorgeneral purpose with a pulling force of 40 kN, belongs to the 4th class. Designed for work on frozen soils or in some areas of industry. For more specific tasks, there are additional nozzles that are attached both to the front (in most cases we get either a bulldozer or a loader) and to the back (devices for agriculture).
Like most similar machines, the T-4A tractor received a metal frame welded from a pair of box section spars. The rear axle housing is attached to the rear with pins and bolts. A metal bar connects them in front. The front part of the frame is occupied by a diesel engine, in front of which radiators of lubrication and cooling systems are displayed. Behind it is a control cabin for two seats. Between the engine and the rear axle box are the main clutch, reverse gear, final drives, manual transmission and PTO (power take-off shaft).
The electrical network is standard 12 V. It includes an electric starter, pre-start system, sound, light alarms and fan drives in the cab. Also, from the mains, you can start the pre-start liquid heating of the motor after a long period of inactivity or when working below 5 degrees.
Rear axle and travel
Tractor T-4A moves with the help of final drives located on the sides of the main frame. In addition to them, the rear axle housing contains the main bevel gear, a pair of sun gear brakes, two parking brakes and a control system for them. Herethere is a planetary single-stage rotation mechanism, based on 4 satellite blocks.
In addition to the main function (complete stop), pressing the parking brake pedals can make the tractor turn around on the spot or make a sharp turn. Smooth small turns are controlled by a planetary gear and sun gear brakes activated by pressing certain levers in the cab.
The final drive consists of a pair of cylindrical gears and a drive wheel. Crawler trucks have a frame structure. Two support rollers are attached to the upper part of the frame, six support rollers are located below. The front wheel performs two functions - the direction of the turn, as well as the tension of the track. Side rails are located along the entire bogie, designed to mount the necessary additional equipment.
The T-4A tractor has an all-metal cab, standing on shock absorbers. It is closed type, has a four-way view. Front and rear glass two-section straight. Most options have wide glazed side doors. The seats are sprung. They can be adjusted in height and inclination, which allows the driver to adjust the most comfortable position for himself. All models were equipped with a stove, but at the request of the customer it could be replaced with an air conditioner.
We examined some of the nuances that distinguish the T-4A tractor. Specifications of the restblocks have changed slightly. If the first cars had a 90 hp engine. s., then the upgraded version received the A-01M engine, the power of which was twice as much - 190 hp. With. Both in the first and in the second case, a 6-cylinder, 4-stroke liquid-cooled diesel engine was used. The launch was carried out in two stages. First, with the help of an electric starter, a PD-10U two-stroke gasoline engine (power 10 hp) was launched. From it started the main diesel engine. Movement without starting the main motor was impossible.
Band brakes, mechanical transmission was used, the turning capabilities have already been mentioned. But the special reverse gear must be said separately. In automotive language, the T-4A tractor did not have a reverse gear. The gearbox had 4 speeds and could only work forward. The presence of a separate lever in the cab made it possible to turn on the reverse gear, after which the car could move backward, also at 4 speeds. The increase in engine power made it possible to increase the number of forward gears to 8, but this did not give much benefit. The combination of unreliable brakes, semi-rigid suspension and many other parameters made it possible to develop a maximum of 10 km / h.
Drivability is an important parameter, the direct consequence of which can be driver fatigue. Given that the device we are describing has several hydraulic systems that control the brakes, linkage mechanisms and other equipment, timely repair of the T-4A tractor will increase the service life and at the same timetime to reduce negative effects.
The first signal of a malfunction in the electrical system of the machine will be a change in the tone of the beep. In this case, you should pay attention to the electrolyte level and its density in the batteries, the discharge of the battery, the response time of the electric starter. If the problem is in the battery, as a rule, the only advice is to replace it.
Jerking when moving tracks, additional force applied when turning, can signal a malfunction of the hydraulic system. Repair of the turning mechanism of the T-4A tractor begins with the removal of the covers on the rear surface of the rear axle housing. Further, after checking the position of the control pin located on the rear wall of the housing near the rotation control levers, tighten the adjusting nut. Its correct position is controlled by the tension of the brake band. You can also check the position of the pin. In its normal state, it is completely hidden.
Model range and equipment
The manufacturer offered 4 configuration options for the T-4A.
- The tractor could have an additional mounted hydraulic system, an additional linkage system + two power cylinders - the so-called C1.
- The second configuration option (C2) was the same as the first, except for the absence of cylinders and an additional hitch system.
- C3 equipment - only additional power cylinders, nothing more.
- Finally C4 - complete kit: includes a mounted hydraulic system, an additional linkage system, but no cylinders.
The lineup can be represented as the following list:
- T4 tractor - basic model produced from 1964 to 1970.
- T-4A tractor - improved model, produced from 1970 to 1998. In addition to the usual towing device, like the prototype, it had several additional options for connecting additional attachments. Also equipped with a more powerful engine.
- The T-4AP tractor is a model for industry, first released in 1972. Repeats the previous version, but does not have the ability to mount fixtures at the back. It was often used as a bulldozer at construction sites, which is why it was sometimes called B4. Based on it, B4-M was developed, but this is a separate issue.
The T-4A crawler tractor, the photos and characteristics of which we examined, has become an indispensable solution for working in waterlogged areas where the use of wheeled vehicles was impossible. The technical capabilities of this tractor allowed him to go to work in early spring, autumn and even winter.