2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:36
There are a lot of interesting details in the car, which only auto mechanics or people who are very passionate about technology know about. One of these parts is a split gear. Tuning enthusiasts also know about this element. Let's find out what this part is and what it is for.
Phase shifters and their function
Most new engines are equipped with phase shifters, which make it possible to adjust the operation of the power unit based on the number of revolutions of the crankshaft. This is necessary in order to get maximum torque over a wider rpm range.
If you take any manual for the operation of a car, then it will indicate such characteristics as engine power in horsepower and the maximum torque that the engine is capable of delivering at certain crankshaft revolutions per minute.
Take, for example, the common Renault Logan model. The engine is capable of delivering 170 horsepower at 6 thousand revolutions of the crankshaft. The maximum torque is 270 Nm at 3250 rpm. From these figures, it is clearthat the maximum torque can be reached already at medium speeds. And the greatest power becomes available only after 6000 rpm. If such a motor is equipped with a phase shifter system, it will have a wider range in which the motor will produce the highest torque, and not the one that is built into the design by the manufacturer.
The split camshaft gear performs approximately the same functions as the phase shifter. This part has a similar design as the camshaft. It can rotate forward or backward at certain angles.
Split gear function
A conventional gear mounted on the camshaft is designed to transmit torque from the crankshaft to the camshaft of the timing mechanism. The part is a one-piece element without any moving parts. The split gear consists of two components - they can move relative to each other. This design allows you to change the angles of the camshaft without affecting the tension force of the timing belt or drive chain.
For example, this part on VAZ engines can turn the shaft by 5 ° in one direction or the other. Here it is necessary to understand that in this way it is possible to change the characteristics of the engine operation only in specific modes - in the upper or lower ranges.
Very often, to increase power and other characteristics of the engine, the camshaft and its gear are changed. If you replace them, you can configure differentlygas distribution phases. It will also be possible to change the valve lag angles. If a split gear is installed on the engine instead of the factory one without replacing the camshaft, then only the overlap angles can be changed.
How does it work?
For example, the torque will change from 4000 rpm down, for example, to 3000. This effect is achieved by turning the camshaft in the direction of the crankshaft. In this case, the valve timing is set so that there is a slight lead. This has the effect of reducing the closing angle of the intake valves.
But you need to remember that if the engine spins up to the maximum possible speed, there will not be such a dense filling in its cylinders. This will not affect the speed and power output in the best way.
Split gear consists of two elements - a ring gear and a hub. They are connected to each other with bolts. The holes for this are made so that the hub can be turned in relation to the crown. The hub is attached to the camshaft by means of a key. This fixation ensures that the hub rotates along with the camshaft.
Top reasons to install split gear
Engine tuners cite two reasons why many install this part. It should be borne in mind that a sports camshaft will not give anything if a split camshaft gear is not additionally installed (VAZ will not go faster). During assembly work onat the factory, the manufacturer often deviates from the data indicated in the drawings. Therefore, the parameters of motors designed for one car model differ from the original ones. These errors are no more than ten degrees in each direction. Naturally, this affects the power characteristics of the motors. By installing a split gear, the car owner has the opportunity to adjust and optimize the torque as needed.
Installing tuned camshafts allows you to significantly increase the torque of the power unit. VAZ split gear - another + 5% to power characteristics. That's pretty good.
Today, the automotive market has gears designed for almost any car from AvtoVAZ. Each model has its own tuning method. Consider the principle of adjustment on the example of VAZ-2108-2112.
So, first of all, on the gear, mark the points on the movable and fixed parts. They are needed to perform the correct installation - all operations are the same as in the case of a standard part. Further, after the points are applied, the split gear is put in place. Installing it is no different from the standard. Then you can put a belt on the newly installed part.
It is important to check several times that the labels match perfectly. For optimum performance, it is necessary tovalve opening control. This indicator is strictly defined and set at the design stage of a specific camshaft. If the valves are open to a greater value than the passport data, then loosen the bolts on the gear, which are located outside. Then turn the distribution element to the outer half of the split so that the parameter can be easily adjusted.
When it is possible to correctly set the zero position of the camshaft, it is necessary to perform a more precise adjustment of the phases. If the upper shaft is turned in the direction of rotation of the lower (crankshaft), thus increasing the thrust. Torque will be available in the mid and low ranges. If the split gear of the camshaft (VAZ-2108 or another car model, not so important) and the shaft itself are turned in the direction opposite to the rotation of the crankshaft, then the power will increase.
When performing this correction procedure, it is important not to go more than half a tooth on the pulley from the starting point. If the gear is adjusted for carburetors, then after each manipulation of the shaft, a correction of the ignition angle is required. Otherwise, there will be interruptions in the system.
16-valve engines VAZ-2110-2112
If the split gear is adjusted for these motors, then it is also recommended to install tuned camshafts with it. You should be guided by the marks made at the factory. They approximately adjust the closing / opening of the valves. Then the position of the top dead center is broughtpiston on the first and second cylinders. Also, a belt is carefully put on the gear.
After that, you need to set the indicators. They will help determine how the valves will move. It is necessary to find a position in which the mechanisms of the fourth cylinder will be completely closed. Next, with the help of a gear and an indicator, the closure is adjusted. Then you can tighten the fixing bolts, assemble the power unit and make a test drive.
On classic eight-valve engines, the gear is set to standard factory marks. Next, adjust the valve closure. The first and fourth pistons are set to TDC. The indicator legs should rest against the rocker.
One by one set the point when the valves are closed on the first cylinder. After that, the exact position of the TDC on the tuned gear is set. Do not forget about the gear ratios on the rockers and the point where the indicator is installed. Next, the gear is fixed, assembled and the engine is started.
Thus, with the help of one gear, you can significantly improve the initial parameters of VAZ engines. This is a fairly popular tuning of domestic engines.
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