2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-20 18:31
The car "Tatra 813" (nickname - "Octopus") is an ideal heavy truck of the period of the 60-70s of the last century. Even today, it is recognized as the best example of the engineering talent of Czechoslovak designers, and from the outside it can be confused with a self-propelled laboratory from the Hollywood action movie "Universal Soldier".
History of Creation
The confrontation between the Warsaw Pact countries and the United States influenced the growth of weapons. This caused an urgent need for trucks. A lot of tanks and other armored vehicles were assembled, but there was nothing to transport platforms with them. Remaining from the time of the Great Patriotic War and donated by the allies began to fall apart, there was no replacement. It was not worth hoping for help from the USSR, since the Union had a similar problem, and production was just beginning to improve.
The only state other than the Soviet Union that could afford the production of such trucks was Czechoslovakia. Work on the new project was started in the early 60s at the plant incity of Kopřivnitz.
The first experimental model "Tatra 813", the photo of which shows it without a cabin and a body, was assembled in 1965. It was tested for 1.5 years, and only in 1967 the first production model came off the assembly line of the plant.
The economy of Czechoslovakia at that time could not afford to use the power of the largest car factory to meet the needs of the army. This was the reason that even at the design stage, the possibility of using the truck for civilian purposes was incorporated in its design.
"Tatry 813" 8x8 specifications allowed to produce it in several versions: six- and four-bridge modifications. The intention to use the truck for peaceful purposes is also emphasized by the cab design, which cannot be called military. The manufacturer allowed the possibility of producing models that can accommodate 3 or 4 people.
The truck was taken out of mass production only in 1982. The total number of assembled models is 11,751 copies, while the capacity of the plant in Kopřivnica allowed the production of about 1,000 copies a year.
In the Soviet Union, this model was supplied in limited quantities. Only a few copies could be found on domestic roads:
- Three-axle "Tatra 813TR" 6x6.
- Flatbed trucks 88.
Models for the needs of the army
In addition to regular army ballast tractors and trucks, based on"Tatry 813" was going to such modifications:
- Pontoon vehicles for engineer troops.
- Self-propelled artillery mounts such as the 152mm vz77 "Dana" howitzer cannon.
- RM-70 multiple launch rocket systems built on the basis of the Soviet BM-21 MLRS (RM-70 MLRS).
Modifications for civil and service purposes
For peaceful purposes, the truck was used everywhere in various modifications. Mostly he met in the coal mining industry and as a transport of special services:
- Aircraft tractors for transporting aircraft.
- Construction cranes.
The numerous advantages of the model were the reason that it was in operation for a long time. Although it was rarely used. The reason for this was fuel consumption, which is 42 liters of diesel fuel per 100 km.
One of its unofficial names - "Octopus", the car received due to the unique technical characteristics.
Although it was built on a factory-familiar backbone frame, the look of the model is brand new. Despite the impressive dimensions, the technical characteristics of the Tatra 813 allowed it to accelerate to 70 km / h, tow a trailer with a load of 100 tons on asph alt, and up to 12 tons on rough terrain.
The car had 8 driving wheels, 4 ofwhich are managed. As an approximate introduction, the performance characteristics of the 8x8 model are given:
- Length - 8,800 mm.
- Width - 2,500 mm.
- Height - 2,750 mm.
- Ground clearance - 380 mm.
- Curb weight - 14 t.
- Diesel engine - 17.64L, 250HP, 12 cylinders.
- Gearbox - manual (20 forward, 4 reverse).
The created truck had many differences from its predecessors. The difference was not only in appearance - a futuristic cabin for that time and a large number of wheels.
Unique specifications were hidden inside the model. When designing, many innovations were used that had never been used on Czech trucks before:
- 4 independent braking systems of "Tatry 813", working separately from each other, allowed to reduce the time of a full stop of a moving car to a minimum.
- emergency, acting on the 2nd and 3rd bridge;
- manual, blocking gearbox;
- auxiliary, closes the throttle and stops the fuel supply;
- pneumatics, extending to all axles and trailer.
Also, a system for changing tire pressure was installed, which increased the cross-country ability, and a lifting system for the leading axle shafts was used, which made it possible to further operate the tractor in case of a puncture.
The design of the cab was built on the principle of the Soviet truck "GAZ-66K" released a year before"Octopus". The lack of a hood meant that most of the engine was in the cab between the driver's and passenger's seats.
The experience gained by the design engineers of the plant in the process of creating and subsequent modernization of the Tatra 813 became the starting point for the birth of the next 815 family. Cars of this series, unlike its predecessor, were intended only for peaceful purposes. Mostly truck cranes, tanks and excavators were assembled on their chassis. Despite the structural difference between the models, the main characteristics of the wheelbase, which are considered a feature of the machines, have been preserved for decades.