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ZIL-130 cooling system: device, principle of operation, malfunctions
ZIL-130 cooling system: device, principle of operation, malfunctions
Anonim

The ZIL-130 cooling system is used to force the removal of excess heat from the elements with its subsequent transfer to the atmosphere. In the process, a thermal regime is formed, which allows for a normal operating cycle, in which the motor does not overcool and does not overheat. The optimal indicator is considered to be a refrigerant temperature of the order of 90-95 ° C.

Cooling System Diagram

Description

The ZIL-130 engine cooling system (picture above) is a liquid type with a closed circuit. It does not interact directly with the surrounding air, which allows you to increase the pressure in the circuit and increase the boiling point of the refrigerant while reducing the waste of liquid for evaporation. The node in question includes:

  • cooling jackets BC, HC, intake manifold (7);
  • fluid pump (2);
  • radiator section (1);
  • drain fittings (6, 12, 14);
  • hoses (4, 8);
  • thermostat and fan (5 and 3).

The cooling circuit must be completely filledliquid. The circulation of the refrigerant can be disrupted already with a shortage of 6-7% of the total volume. This situation is fraught with the formation of scale (at low temperatures) or overheating of the motor (at high rates). The state of the internal filler of the cooling jacket of the inlet pipeline is monitored using a special sensor (10). If the temperature exceeds 115 degrees, the warning light will turn on.

Operation principle

The liquid in the ZIL-130 cooling system is supplied from the radiator to the pump through the lower pipe, after which it enters both cylinder block (BC) cooling jackets. The refrigerant heats up due to the removal of part of the heat from the cylinders, then rises up, passes through the channels near the exhaust valves and goes to the GC cooling circuit. At the next stage, the liquid enters the jacket of the inlet pipeline, heating it to improve the formation of the mixture.

After that, the refrigerant bypasses the thermostatic valve, returns to the radiator through the outlet pipe hose, spreading over the brass tubular elements, giving them its heat. Accelerates the cooling of the filler by the oncoming air flow created by the fan or compressor, which is aggregated with the liquid pump shaft and the crankshaft pulley.

Car "ZIL-130"

ZIL-130 cooling system device

One of the main elements of the design under consideration is a radiator, which consists of a pair of tanks (top and bottom), the middle part, pipes, a neck with a stopper and a steam outlet pipe. The element is placed on the frame in front of the motor,fixed with rubber pads with springs. The radiator is cooled by means of an oncoming air flow, which is enhanced by the action of the fan. Lamellar or tubular radiators are mounted on a truck of the specified class.

The first option has a core insert from a single row of brass tubes. They have a flat shape, each is made of corrugated analogues, interconnected by soldering. In tubular models, the core is organized by several layers of tubes. They are passed through transverse plates, which increase the cooling area and the rigidity of the assembly. A neck with a steam vent is provided in the upper tank, hermetic sealing is provided by a cork-shaped lid with a pair of valves.

Radiator plug. Thanks to its tight fit, it minimizes liquid loss due to steam or overflow. Regardless of how many liters are currently in the ZIL-130 cooling system, the plug steam valve prevents the radiator from bursting and bulging. Its opening occurs when the pressure reaches 1.25 kgf/sq.cm. The air valve prevents the radiator from deforming due to excessive condensation of water vapor. If the vacuum parameter reaches 0.8 kgf / sq. cm, it opens, passing air into the radiator.

The device of the ZIL cooling system assumes the presence of a thermostat. This element is installed at the outlet of the refrigerant from the inlet piping circuit. The filler is a solid copper-ceresin mixture.The "stuffing" is in a copper tank, which is covered with a rubber diaphragm that aggregates with a rubber buffer. On top of it there is a rod that interacts with the lever. In the locked position, it is held by a spring.

When the refrigerant is heated to 70 degrees, the balloon filler melts and expands, causing the diaphragm to move up. Its pressure is transformed to the lever through the buffer-rod mechanism, as a result of which the damper is unlocked. Some modifications have a bypass valve, the operating temperatures of which vary between 78-95 degrees.

When the engine is running in the ZIL-130 cooling system (the volume of which is 28 liters), liquid from the lower radiator tank is supplied under pressure through a hose outlet to the cooling jacket of the BC and HC. If a cold engine is warming up, the connecting pipe of the engine cooling jacket is blocked by a thermostatic valve. In this case, the coolant operates along a small circuit, without entering the radiator, it is fed back to the liquid pump. After the liquid has warmed up to the desired level, the valve opens, activating a large cooling circle through the radiator, ensuring heat removal in the required amount.

Thermostat operation diagram

In the picture:

1. Reservoir.

2. Ceresin.

3. Membrane.

4. Sleeve.

5. Stock.

6. Return spring.

7. Flap.

8-13. Spigots.

9. Rocker.

10. Skeleton.

11. Buffer.

12. Clip.

Otheritems

The ZIL-130 engine cooling system includes a water pump. It allows you to drive the refrigerant about 10 times in one minute. The centrifugal pump is fixed on the front end of the engine. The liquid supply is carried out from one side. The drive shaft of the specified device is mounted on a pair of ball bearings in a cast iron frame. The impeller of the mechanism, which is located on the same shaft as the fan, is equipped with a self-clamping gland in the form of a rubber cuff. The design also includes a textolite washer, a spring. The specified elements in the assembly tightly interact with the body end part.

Refrigerant is supplied to the central compartment of the impeller from the radiator to the pipe, then transported under the influence of steam (1.5-2.5 kg / sq. cm) to both groups of engine cylinders. The bearing housing is equipped with a drain hole that serves to remove the mixture released in case of wear of the stuffing box elements. Bearings are lubricated using an oiler and a control socket for removing lubricant waste.

Another element is an electrothermal temperature indicator. The thermal state of water in the ZIL engine cooling system is controlled using a special thermometer. Its design includes a sensor located in the cylinder head, as well as a pointer on the instrument panel. If the ignition is activated, the specified device is inactive, its arrow takes up a position on the 100 ° mark. After starting the motor, the current through the energized contacts penetrates in a spiral, followed by heating of the bimetal plate. At the same time, the last part is bent, and its upper endmoves the pointer to the leftmost position.

The indicator plate deforms again under the influence of current, opens the contacts, breaking the spiral chain. The sensor plate is cooled synchronously, after which the contacts close again. At an unheated power unit, the contacts are disconnected for a short time, after which the heated plate determines the reduced temperature regime. When the water temperature rises, the arrow moves to the right, indicating the corresponding degree.

The next detail in the design of the ZIL-130 cooling system is shutters made of metal. They are installed in front of the radiator, helping to correct the atmospheric flow passing through the fixture. During engine warm-up and cold weather driving, these shutters are closed to ensure optimal coolant temperatures.

The standard ZIL-130 cooling system compressor replaces a conventional fan. It enhances the flow of air through the radiator core. The hub of the device is fixed on the shaft of the water pump, the elements rotate synchronously from the crankshaft pulley using one or two belts of a trapezoidal configuration. The propeller of the unit is placed in a special casing, which makes it possible to increase the speed of the passing air.

Engine ZIL-130

Main malfunctions

Among the common malfunctions of the ZIL-130 cooling system, there are several points. Among them is the overheating of the power unit, which is caused by several factors:

  • lack of quantityrefrigerant;
  • slipping or deformation of the pump or fan belt;
  • failure of the friction clutch;
  • fan failure;
  • incorrect functioning (jamming) of the thermostat and radiator shutters;
  • excessive deposition of lime and s alt deposits.

Overheating adversely affects the volumetric capacity of the cylinders of the fuel-air mixture, which is fraught with oil burnout or dilution. For this reason, bearing shells melt and pistons jam.

The next malfunction in the ZIL-130 cooling system (volume 28 l) is the overcooling of the motor. This problem occurs due to jamming of the thermostat and blinds in the open position or in the absence of insulation materials in winter. Hypothermia of the motor provokes friction losses, a decrease in the power of the power unit, and the condensation of gasoline vapors that flow down the mirror surface of the cylinder. This action washes away grease, increases the risk of wear on parts, and requires frequent oil changes.

Lack of refrigerant occurs when the coolant leaks or boils away. Leakage of the composition is observed through broken seals in the connecting hoses and stopcocks. In addition, this happens due to the appearance of cracks and deformations in the radiator, cooling jacket, oil seal or cylinder head gasket.

Lack of tightness in the joints is a fairly common problem in the ZIL-130 cooling system. Eliminate loose fit by tightening the clamps. If necessarya thin strip of metal is placed under it. If a malfunction is observed in part of the faucets, they must be ground in. This process consists of dismantling the locking device, unbending it, applying lapping paste to the working surface and grinding them with the usual movements until a matte cavity appears over the entire treated area. If there are cracks in the radiator, they can be repaired by soldering temporarily (replacement of elements will be required soon).

The appearance of a leak through the control hole in the pump frame indicates damage to the stuffing box of this unit. To resolve the issue, follow these steps:

  1. Drain the refrigerant.
  2. Loosen the fan belt and clamps.
  3. Disconnect the rubber connecting hose.
  4. Carefully dismantle the fluid pump.
  5. Unscrew the bolt securing the impeller and remove it.

Most often, a rubber cuff or a moving washer fails in the stuffing box. Faulty elements are changed, after which they are assembled and installed in the reverse order.

ZIL-130 engine with cooling system

Other possible problems

Slip of the radiator belt is another malfunction characteristic of the ZIL-130 cooling system. How many liters are poured into the radiator at the same time is not very important. Most often, trouble occurs due to oiling of the drive unit or pulleys. A weak belt tension can also cause a malfunction. To get out of the situation, these parts should be wiped with a clean, dry cloth whilebelt tension adjustment.

Other problems are listed below:

  1. The electrofriction clutch does not turn on. A malfunction occurs as a result of failure of the electromagnetic winding, thermal relay or contact.
  2. The thermostat is sticking. In the locked position, this problem stops the passage of fluid through the radiator elements. In this case, the last part remains cold, and the engine is prone to overheating. To eliminate the malfunction, check the thermostat by draining the refrigerant and carefully dismantling the pipe. The item is lowered into a container of clean water and slowly heated. In the process, the opening of the valve should begin at a temperature of 70 degrees. When inspecting the thermostat, pay attention to the presence of scale and the cleanliness of the through hole in the valve.
  3. Jalousie jamming. This malfunction in the cooling system of the ZIL-130 compressor occurs if the unit is lubricated untimely or insufficiently. The cable with the sheath should be removed, thoroughly washed in kerosene and lubricated in the required amount. To check the operation of the blinds, it is necessary to move the handle to the extreme frontal position, and then to the same rear position. First, the gratings should open completely, and on the next action, they should close. The handle should move without effort and be fixed in any position.

Maintenance of the ZIL-130 cooling system

It is recommended to fill the specified design with antifreeze if the transport is operated in the cold season. Taking into account the possibility of expansionantifreeze liquid loading volume is not more than 95% of the total capacity. Since antifreeze contains volatile toxic substances in its composition, in the summer it must be drained and replaced with water. An analogue under the name TOSOL is suitable for use annually, since it does not cause corrosive processes. Regardless of the capacity of the ZIL-130 cooling system, there are several types of unit maintenance. Among them:

  1. Daily maintenance. This process includes checking the level of refrigerant, the presence of leaks. If required, add water or antifreeze. Visually inspect for tightness drain taps, junctions of pipes and hoses. A re-inspection is carried out after turning on the motor and warming it up. Existing smudges are eliminated by replacing or fixing problematic parts. In winter, at the end of the working day, the water is drained (if the vehicle is not stored in a warm garage).
  2. Once every six months it is recommended to remove and check the thermostat, control the operation of the blinds, remove scale on the pipes of the ZIL-130 cooling system.
  3. TO-1. At this stage, the bearings of the fan shafts and the water pump are lubricated. Grease is used as a service material, which is injected with a special device until fresh grease appears from the control socket on the housing.
  4. TO-2. Check the tightness of the entire system, eliminate existing smudges. In addition, they check the fastening of the radiator, blinds, hood insulation (in winter). They also test the operation of the electrofriction clutch and fan. Other manipulations: lubrication of the pump bearing,checking the tightness of the heating unit, monitoring the functioning of the blinds, testing the steam and air valve of the radiator cap.
Truck ZIL-130

Flushing

Taking into account the principle of operation of the ZIL-130 cooling system, flushing of the unit is required every 30-40 thousand kilometers. The procedure allows you to remove scale, clean pipelines from other contaminants. If the plaque is not critical, the treatment is carried out by supplying a strong jet of water in the direction opposite to normal circulation. In the process, the radiator and jacket are washed separately. In the case of the appearance of strong and significant deposits, chemicals are used. Active substances are focused on the destruction of complex s alt formations.

When processing the entire volume of the ZIL cooling system with trisodium triphosphate, the composition is added every 12 hours (2-3 days) while the vehicle is running. The final rinse is carried out with water.

Treatment with mixtures of soda ash and anhydride involves pouring solutions followed by starting the engine at low idle. For 15-20 minutes, the suspension is brought to a boil. Then the mixture is drained, followed by washing the unit with water.

If inhibited hydrochloric acid is used as the active substance, the structure is first treated with water for 15 minutes. After that, the prepared composition is poured, the motor is turned on, the mixture is heated to a temperature of 70 ° C. The engine is allowed to run for about 10 minutes, after which the suspension is drained, and the system is washed 3-4 times with water. Powerthe unit does not turn off. The third and fourth treatments are carried out with the addition of five grams of chrompic and anhydrous soda to the liquid.

Adjustment of belt drives

This operation should be carried out in a timely manner to ensure reliable and correct operation of the ZIL-130 compressor cooling system. Belt slip occurs due to oiling and weakening of these elements. Parts should be wiped with a cloth slightly dampened with gasoline.

The tension of the fan and generator drive belts is adjusted by turning the second unit on its support. In the required position, the device is fixed by means of a backstage. The parameter is checked as follows: the belt deflection in the middle part between the fan and generator pulleys should be no more than 15 mm when exposed to a force of 4 kg. Adjustment of a similar element of the hydraulic power steering pump is performed using the shift of the bracket with the pump. By pushing the halves of the pulley of the injection equipment, they ensure the correct tension of the ZIL-130 compressor belt with their own hands. Cooling of the node will be more efficient if all of these procedures are carried out in one complex.

Repair work

To repair the radiator, it is necessary to take into account the features of its design and the rules for dismantling. The tubes of the part are made of firewood "L-90". Tape and plate cooling elements are made of M-3 category copper. Radiator, louvre grilles, fan shroud are bolted into the provided frame structure. The frame itself is fixed on the transverse partcar frame with a center bolt and a set of rubber pads.

The edges of the frame in the upper part are closed with a tightening device and a lining reinforcement. At the same time, they serve as a frontal support for the plumage of the vehicle together with the facing part. Water is drained from the radiator cavity through a stopcock with a handle connected to the valve. In order to disassemble the ZIL-130 engine cooling radiator, you first need to dismantle the oil equivalent. This manipulation is carried out by unscrewing the fixing bolts, excluding the suspension, then removing the oil cooler along with the brackets.

To disconnect the tubes, it is necessary to loosen the clamping screws, dismantle the rubber hoses. Removing the brackets is done by unscrewing the nut, removing the bolts and removing a pair of brackets from the oil cooler. To dismantle the suspension frame, unscrew the bolt fasteners of the plates, disconnect the section from the base. At the next stage, the bolt clamps on the casing are unscrewed, the screws are removed, the casing is unhooked, and the frame spacer is dismantled. To remove the blinds, you just need to unscrew the screws that hold the "curtain" on the plates. After removing the bolts, the blinds are disconnected from the radiator.

After the repair of the ZIL-130 cooling system or the replacement of unusable parts, the unit is assembled. First, the part should be cleaned of dirt, rinsed with running water, adjusting the pressure on the lower pipe so that it comes out through the upper outlet. In this case, the cork must be clogged. Flushing is considered completed when it becomesdrain clean water. The treated radiator is checked for tightness using an air supply of 0.15 MPa. The elements are assembled in a mirror sequence.

Water pump disassembly

To repair this node, you need to disassemble it. The operation is carried out sequentially according to the following scheme:

  1. The device is installed and fixed in a vise.
  2. The nuts are unscrewed, the gaskets and spring washers (3, 2, 1) are removed, the housing (9) is removed.
  3. The bolt (6) fixing the impeller is unscrewed, after which the latter is dismantled.
  4. Removing bushing, bearing circlip and key.
  5. The roller of the unit is pressed out on the press together with the bearings (5).
  6. Remove bearings, slant bushing and water bleeder (4).
  7. The cage and seal are removed from the impeller (7).
  8. All parts are washed.
  9. Unusable and deformed items are replaced.
  10. Assembly is carried out in reverse order.
  11. Cooling water pump

Compressor malfunctions and repairs

In the device of the ZIL-130 cooling system, extraneous noises during compressor operation or the appearance of oil in the air reservoir indicate a malfunction of the unit. During operation, cracks and chips appear on the crankcase, which requires replacement of the part. If the deformations are insignificant and located on the fixing flange, they can be eliminated by welding.

To check the tightness of the cylinder, the element is placed in a water bath, after whichpump compressed air. The appearance of bubbles indicates that not everything is in order with tightness. The repair is carried out by boring the tank with honing to the repair size. Permissible error - no more than 0.04 mm. The corresponding parameter of the pistons is determined by the markings stamped on the bottom (+04, +08). If the ball bearings are worn, they should be pressed and replaced with new parts. Replacement of the entire crankshaft is required if the wear of the connecting rod journals exceeds 0.05 mm. To eliminate wear on the upper head of the connecting rod, press the repair sleeve through the prepared hole with a diameter of 14.01 mm.

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