Truck is a large truck designed to transport bulky goods. This name comes from the German Fuhre - strength, load. Previously, this was the name for wide and long carts drawn by horses or oxen. The height of the truck was arbitrary. Depending on the specifics of the things being transported, the sides of the cart could be removed or, on the contrary, increased.
Why do we need trucks?
With the development of the automotive industry, this word began to be used as the name of large tractors towing semi-trailers. Today, such transport is used to transport goods over long distances. Typically, trucks are used by large companies and manufacturing plants.
They are convenient because they can accommodate bulky goods, the volume of which reaches 120 cubic meters. Moreover, in tilt trailers, the transported units can be completely different - special fasteners allow you to securely fix them. For the transportation of bulk products or building materials, special long-length flatbed trailers are usually used, with extended sides that increase the height of the truck.
When transporting special equipment and oversized cargo, length gauges with reinforced frames are used.
All transported goods are divided into classes and types. Among them, especially stand out:
Each of these species has its own rules and requirements for transportation. Transportation of cargo, if the height of the truck allows, can be packaged or bulk. Packaged transportation is a more reliable shipping option.
For any moving elements, a certain type of suitable vehicle equipped with special equipment is selected. According to the characteristics of the transported units - their volume, weight, temperature regime of storage and method of packaging - determine the type of semi-trailer.
Truck dimensions: choice by type of cargo and its dimensions
Many transport companies rent modern trucks. Today, the choice of offered trucks is very diverse. And the most popular are:
- refrigerated bodies and semi-trailers;
- "road trains" or euro trucks;
- isothermal body;
- platforms for oversized cargo;
- open platforms;
- Jumbo bodies.
Heavy weight, length, width and height of the truck may vary depending on the type and model. For example, a standard "road train" can carry from 16 to 25 tons. It will include from 22 to 33 pallets. In this case, the usable volume can vary from60 to 120 cubic meters. This type of vehicle is perfect for transporting most types of cargo, except for dangerous, perishable and long items.
But the platform for oversized cargo (despite the fact that it can carry from 20 to 40 tons) is unlikely to be used by anyone to transport loaded pallets - usually oversized units, containers, construction mechanisms and special equipment. The height of the truck from the ground to the top of the load may be more than three meters.
The right vehicle is the guarantee of quality and reliable delivery.
Types of heavy trucks
One of the most common types of heavy trucks are flatbed semi-trailers. They are used when transporting pipes, metal fittings, building materials.
A curtain-sided semi-trailer may have sides or metal posts instead. In such a heavy truck, everything that is suitable in terms of dimensions and temperature conditions is transported. Due to the distinctive design features, it is convenient to carry out loading and unloading operations in this type of semi-trailers. The height of a 20 ton truck is usually 2.45 meters. Very often, when transporting certain goods, the awning frame is removed. Then this semi-trailer is used as an open platform.
For the transportation of bulk cargo (gravel, sand, grain, etc.), long-length semi-trailers equipped with a tipping unloading platform are used. Dump semi-trailers can unload fromone or three sides.
When transporting perishable products, medicines and flowers, isothermal semi-trailers or refrigerated trailers are usually used.
Petroleum products are transported with the help of special tank trucks. They are equipped with double walls, the space between which is filled with flame-retardant material.
Jumbo bodies have a large internal volume. Due to the special design and dimensions of the truck, they are very roomy. A distinctive feature here is the unusual shape of the broken frame and reduced rear wheels. For the transportation of heavy cargo, the weight of which reaches more than a hundred tons, special low-frame trawls with a large number of axles are used.
Large vehicles designed to transport heavy loads over long distances consist of two components: a truck tractor and a semi-trailer. They are connected by special supports and couplings. A semi-trailer is not a self-propelled vehicle. He usually travels as part of a road train.
The load capacity of the truck determines the number of axles of the semi-trailer. The body, which has one axle, is designed for transportation, weighing up to 2 tons, and two axles of the semi-trailer are capable of transporting up to 8 tons. The multi-axle semi-trailer is designed for loads over 20 tons.
The height of the truck from the ground to the top, its length and width, determine the useful volume of vehicles. On average, it ranges from 60 to 96 cubic meters. Semitrailermay have air or spring suspension. The second option is usually used in off-road conditions.
The heaviness of the vehicle, together with the load, is determined by two criteria: total mass and axle load. For these criteria, there are special standards. If at least one of them is exceeded, then the cargo is equated to heavy. For its transportation, a special permit for transportation and the provision of additional traffic safety measures are required. There are also certain requirements for the height of the truck.