If we talk about the evolution of cars, then you need to start your story from the distant 1478. It was then that the famous artist, inventor and innovator of his time, Leonardo da Vinci, made the first drawing of a car. Modern scientists at the beginning of the 21st century brought this drawing to life and proved that the scientist's thoughts were moving in the right direction. Since the time of da Vinci, cars have come a long way until they became the familiar car that we are seeing now. Let's look at all the stages of the evolution of the car.
The creation of the first steam car, or, as it was then called, "self-running cart", happened in 1672. The Belgian Jesuit missionary Ferdinand Ferbist came up with the idea to adapt a steam engine to a cart and send the steam escaping from it to a wheel with blades. He connected this wheel with gears to the front wheels of the cart. Thus, steam could not onlypushing the first wheel, but also forcing the axle of the front wheels of the cart to spin, forcing it to go and even carry a small load.
He later improved his invention by adding an extra wheel on the rear with a movable hinge, thus giving the trolley the ability to turn on the go.
The self-running cart has been repeatedly improved. Newton was able to "make" her move faster, and the Frenchman Cugnot to carry heavy loads. The evolution of the steam-powered car took place until about the end of the 18th century, when, having lost control, the inventor demolished the wall of the Arsenal. This incident was the first car accident in history.
From the middle of the 19th century, steam engines were mainly used in steam locomotives.
In 1971, Russian inventor Ivan Kulibin invented a car that was driven by pedals. It was the first mechanically driven car in history. At the same time, he could not only move, but also change speed, power, had a rear wheel brake and a steering wheel that looked more like a ship's steering wheel.
In the 19th century, the first internal combustion engine appeared, and it was this moment that became a turning point in the history of the evolution of cars.
But the first crew of the German inventor G. Daimler was not a car, but something in between a familiar motorcycle and a bicycle. It was made on the principle of a four-wheeled bicycle made of wood, the wheels of the same material were coverediron rims. And it was on this miracle of technology that the first ICE stood, which helped to reach speeds of up to 12 km / h. The brake system there was also wooden.
Back in 1898, Louis Renault invented a car equipped with a gearbox, the principle of which has not changed much to this day. But the first automatic transmission was produced a little later, in 1939 in America.
As you can see, since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the evolution of cars began to move forward by leaps and bounds.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Ferdinand Porsche invented a car that not only had four driving wheels, but also an electric motor. And a little later, he also connected the electric motor to the gasoline, creating a serial hybrid drive.
If we separately consider the evolution of car design, it can be seen that the first cars were similar to the horse-drawn carriage, which was widely known and popular at that time. The inventors did not have any prototype with which they could compare their invention, so they "customized" it to the usual forms.
And only at the beginning of the 20th century, designers began to move away from this in order to make a new breakthrough in the evolution of the car. Briefly, it can be called the era of Ford. It was Henry Ford who introduced the assembly line system, which made it possible to assemble a car model in 1 hour and 33 minutes, thereby breaking all sales records.cars.
It was from the beginning of the 20th century that the familiar history of modern cars began. And although the evolution of cars continues to this day, it is not so dramatic. Rather, modern models can be called more and more advanced. But the real evolution of this miracle of technology took place precisely from the distant XV to the beginning of the XX century. So a modern car can rightfully be called a distant hello to Leonardo da Vinci, who in those, as we used to think, “dense” times, was able to create technology that we still cannot do without in modern life.
History of individual parts
- Disc brake - only invented in 1958
- Wipers were invented by American Mary Anderson in 1903. The reason that prompted her to do this was the torment of her driver, who had to constantly manually clean the glass from adhering snow.
- The seat belt was only invented in 1959.
- Air conditioning - appeared in the 1939 Packard 12 car. It was not very efficient and very bulky (it took up half the trunk).
- Navigators were invented by the Japanese in 1981. They worked without reference to satellites and were quite difficult to manage. And the cost was like a quarter of the car itself. Navigators familiar to us appeared only in 1995.
- Airbag - appeared in 1971 on a Ford car, but became widely used only from the mid-eighties.