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Multi-link suspension: description, principle of operation, pros and cons

Multi-link suspension: description, principle of operation, pros and cons
Multi-link suspension: description, principle of operation, pros and cons
Anonim

Now different types of suspensions are installed on cars. There is dependent and independent. Recently, a semi-independent beam at the rear and a MacPherson strut at the front have been installed on budget-class cars. Business and premium cars have always used independent multi-link suspension. What are the pros and cons of her? How is it organized? All this and more - further in our today's article.

Characteristic

Multi-link suspension is installed on cars with rear- and front-wheel drive layout. It has a more complex device, therefore it is used on expensive class cars. For the first time, a multi-link suspension was installed on the Jaguar E-Tour in the early 60s. Over time, it has been modernized and is now actively used on Mercedes, BMW, Audi and many others.

Device

What are the features of this design? Multi-link suspensionassumes the presence of the following elements:

  • Subframe.
  • Wishbone and trailing arms.
  • Hub bearings.
  • Shock absorbers and springs.

How is it all secured?

The hub is attached to the wheel by means of four levers. This allows the wheel of the car to move freely in the transverse and longitudinal plane. The supporting element in the design of this suspension is the subframe.

beam or multi-link suspension

A cross arm is attached to it through special bushings with a metal base. To reduce vibration, they use rubber. The cross arms are connected to the hub support. This ensures the correct position of the wheels in the transverse plane. Often, a multi-link independent rear suspension includes three wishbones:

  • Lower rear.
  • Front.
  • Top.

The latter carries out the transmission of forces and connects the subframe to the wheel support housing. The lower front suspension arm controls the toe. The rear element perceives the forces that are transmitted from the body when the car is moving. The steering of the wheel in the longitudinal position is carried out thanks to the longitudinal lever. It is attached to the car body with a support. On the other hand, the element is connected to the hub.

multi-link independent rear suspension

A passenger car has four trailing arms, one for each wheel. The hub support itself is the base for the wheel and bearing.The latter is attached with a bolt. By the way, if you do not observe its tightening torque, you can disable the bearing. When making repairs, you should leave a small play in the hub. Otherwise, the bearing will crumble. Also, the multi-link front suspension has a coil spring in its design. It rests on the lower rear wishbone and receives forces from it. A shock absorber is located separately from the spring. It is usually connected to the hub support.

Stabilizer

The multi-link rear suspension, unlike the semi-independent beam, has an anti-roll bar in its design. The name itself speaks for the purpose of the element. This part reduces roll when cornering at speed. Also, this parameter is affected by the stiffness of shock absorbers and springs. The presence of a stabilizer significantly reduces the risk of skidding when cornering, as it ensures continuous contact of the wheels with the road surface. The element is a kind of metal bar. It looks like the photo below.

multi-link suspension

The anti-roll bar is mounted on the subframe of the multi-link suspension and secured with rubber mounts. Thanks to the rods, the rod is connected to the hub support. What are the pros and cons of multi-link suspension? Let's take a look at them below.

Benefits

Cars with this suspension are much more comfortable. The design uses several levers. All of them are mounted on subframes through silent blocks. Because of this, when passingpit suspension perfectly swallows all the bumps.

multi-link rear suspension

By the way, only the lever of the wheel that got into the pit works. If it is a beam, all efforts will be transferred to the adjacent hub. In a car where a multi-link suspension is used, there is no excessive noise and vibration when passing through bumps in the road. Also, this car is safer. This is explained by the use of an anti-roll bar. In terms of weight, the levers are much lighter than the beam. This reduces the curb weight of the vehicle.

Thus, a multi-link suspension is:

  • Comfort.
  • No strong impacts on the body.
  • Increased grip.
  • Possibility of transverse and longitudinal adjustment.

Flaws

If the question is raised about what is better - a beam or a multi-link suspension - it is worth considering the cons of the latter. The biggest drawback is the complexity of the design. Hence the high cost of maintenance and the expensive price of the car itself.

multi-link front suspension

The cost of a multi-link suspension is 2-3 times higher than a conventional semi-independent beam. The next one is resource. Since the design uses a lot of hinges, levers and stilentblok, they all fail sooner or later. The service life of multi-link suspension parts is 100 thousand kilometers. As for the beam, it is practically eternal. The design is much more reliable and does not require expensive maintenance. Maximum thatneeds to be replaced - it's shock absorbers. They "walk" on our roads for about 80 thousand kilometers. Multi-link suspension requires more attention when driving over bumps. If the car began to make knocks in the front or rear, it is worth examining the condition of the levers and silent blocks. If there is play and free play, they should be replaced.

independent multi-link suspension

The cost of new levers on the "Mercedes" in the 124th body is $ 120 per wheel. Despite the great age and low cost of the car, spare parts for it have not become cheaper. The same applies to other machines that use this type of suspension. When replacing silent blocks, you need a lift or a viewing hole. Usually such machines are repaired in service centers. And these are additional costs.

Can I identify the problem myself?

If you notice characteristic knocks while driving, the suspension may need to be repaired. To find out the exact cause, you need a viewing hole or overpass. If this is the front suspension, inspect the condition of the constant velocity joint. It has a duster on it. If it is cracked, an urgent replacement is needed. Otherwise, all the dirt will get inside and you will have to buy a new CV joint assembly.

multi-link independent rear suspension

Check the play in the tie rods. Check shock absorbers. If there are streaks on them, most likely, the sound comes from them. This means that the valve inside the shock absorber is broken and the stem moves arbitrarily. Silent blocks of levers and anti-roll baralso should not have backlashes. Inspection of the rear suspension should begin with shock absorbers. Next, check the rubber seals and traction. Often the elements are damaged in the area of ​​​​contact with the exhaust pipe.

multi-link suspension pros and cons

Pay special attention to this place. If the muffler hits the body, there are characteristic traces of impacts, it is worth replacing its pillow. In most cases, the problem disappears. After examining the condition of the suspension, summarize which elements are out of order and need to be replaced. In the absence of experience, it is recommended to contact the service.

Conclusion

So, we found out the features of the multi-link suspension. As you can see, it has many disadvantages. But its main advantage is comfort. The way this car drives is incomparable. It is also more agile. If there is a choice - a beam or a multi-link - it is worth starting from the budget. The last pendant should only be taken if you are willing to spend at least $400 to maintain it.

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