2023 Author: Erin Ralphs | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:36
The alternator voltage regulator is an integral part of the electrical system of any car. With its help, the voltage is maintained in a certain range of values. In this article, you will learn about what designs of regulators exist at the moment, including mechanisms that have not been used for a long time.
Basic automatic control processes
It doesn't matter at all what type of generator set is used in the car. In any case, it has a regulator in its design. The automatic voltage control system allows you to maintain a certain value of the parameter, regardless of the frequency with which the generator rotor rotates. The figure shows the generator voltage regulator relay, its diagram and appearance.
By analyzing the physical basis on which a generator set operates, it can be concluded that the output voltage increases as the rotor speed becomes higher. It can also be concluded that voltage regulation is carried out bydecrease in the current supplied to the rotor winding, with an increase in rotational speed.
What is a generator
Any car generator consists of several parts:
1. A rotor with an excitation winding around which an electromagnetic field is created during operation.
2. Stator with three windings connected according to the "star" scheme (an alternating voltage is removed from them in the range from 12 to 30 Volts).
3. In addition, the design contains a three-phase rectifier, consisting of six semiconductor diodes. It is worth noting that the voltage regulator of the VAZ 2107 generator (injector or carburetor in the injection system) is the same.
But the generator will not be able to work without a voltage regulator. The reason for this is the change in voltage in a very large range. Therefore, it is necessary to use an automatic control system. It consists of a comparison device, control, executive, master and special sensor. The main element is the regulatory body. It can be either electrical or mechanical.
When the rotor begins to rotate, some voltage appears at the output of the generator. And it is fed to the excitation winding by means of an adjustment organ. It is also worth noting that the output of the generator set is connected directly to the battery. Therefore, voltage is constantly present on the excitation winding. When the rotor speed increases, the output voltage begins to changegenerator set. The relay-voltage regulator of the Valeo generator or any other manufacturer is connected to the generator output.
At the same time, the sensor captures the change, sends a signal to the comparing device, which analyzes it, comparing it with the specified parameter. Next, the signal goes to the control device, from which it is fed to the actuator. The regulator is able to reduce the value of the current that flows to the rotor winding. As a result, the voltage at the output of the generator set decreases. Similarly, the above parameter is increased in case of a decrease in the rotor speed.
Two-level automatic control system consists of a generator, rectifier element, storage battery. It is based on an electric magnet, its winding is connected to the sensor. The driving devices in these types of mechanisms are very simple. These are regular springs. A small lever is used as a comparing device. It is mobile and performs switching. The actuating device is the contact group. The regulator is a constant resistance. Such a relay-generator voltage regulator, the circuit of which is given in the article, is very often used in technology, although it is obsolete.
Two-level regulator operation
When the generator is running, a voltage appears at the output, which is supplied to the winding of the electromagnetic relay. This creates a magneticfield, with its help the lever arm is attracted. The latter is acted upon by a spring; it is used as a comparator. If the voltage becomes higher than expected, the contacts of the electromagnetic relay open. In this case, a constant resistance is included in the circuit. Less current is applied to the excitation winding. The voltage regulator of the VAZ 21099 generator and other domestic and foreign cars works on a similar principle. If the output voltage decreases, then the contacts are closed, while the current strength changes upwards.
Two-level mechanical voltage regulators have a big drawback - excessive wear of the elements. For this reason, instead of an electromagnetic relay, they began to use semiconductor elements operating in a key mode. The principle of operation is similar, only the mechanical elements are replaced by electronic ones. The sensitive element is made on a voltage divider, which consists of fixed resistors. A zener diode is used as a driving device.
The modern VAZ 21099 generator voltage regulator is a more advanced device, reliable and durable. The actuating part of the control device functions on transistors. As the voltage at the output of the generator changes, the electronic key closes or opens the circuit, if necessary, an additional resistance is connected. It is worth noting that two-level regulators are imperfect devices. Instead, it is better to use more moderndevelopment.
Three-level regulation system
The quality of regulation of such structures is much higher than that of those considered earlier. Previously, mechanical designs were used, but non-contact devices are more common today. All elements used in this system are the same as those discussed above. But the principle of operation is slightly different. First, voltage is applied through a divider to a special circuit in which information is processed. Installing such a relay-generator voltage regulator ("Ford Sierra" can also be equipped with similar equipment) is permissible on any car if you know the device and the connection diagram.
Here the actual value is compared with the minimum and maximum values. If the voltage deviates from the value that is set, then a certain signal appears. It is called a mismatch signal. With its help, the current strength supplied to the excitation winding is regulated. The difference from a two-level system is that there are several additional resistances.
Modern voltage regulation systems
If the relay-voltage regulator of the Chinese scooter generator is two-level, then more advanced devices are used on expensive cars. Multilevel control systems can contain 3, 4, 5 or more additional resistances. There are also tracking systems for automatic control. In some designs, you can refuse to use additionalresistance.
Instead of them, the frequency of operation of the electronic key increases. It is simply impossible to use circuits with an electromagnetic relay in servo control systems. One of the latest developments is a multi-level control system that uses frequency modulation. In such designs, additional resistances are needed, which serve to control the logic elements.
How to remove the regulator relay
Remove the relay-voltage regulator of the generator ("Lanos" or domestic "nine" you have - it doesn't matter) is quite simple. It is worth noting that when replacing the voltage regulator, only one tool is required - a flat or Phillips screwdriver. It is not necessary to remove the generator or belt and its drive. Most of the devices are located on the back cover of the generator, and are combined into a single unit with a brush mechanism. The most frequent breakdowns occur in several cases.
First, when the graphite brushes are completely erased. Secondly, during the breakdown of a semiconductor element. How to check the regulator will be described below. When removing, you will need to disconnect the battery. Disconnect the wire that connects the voltage regulator to the generator output. By unscrewing both fixing bolts, you can pull out the device case. But the relay-voltage regulator of the VAZ 2101 generator has an outdated design - it is mounted in the engine compartment, separately from the brush assembly.
Checking the relay-generator voltage regulator VAZ 2106, "kopecks", foreign cars are the same. As soon as you remove, look at the brushes - they should have a length of more than 5 millimeters. In the event that this parameter is different, you need to replace the device. To carry out diagnostics, you need a constant voltage source. It is desirable to be able to change the output characteristic. As a power source, you can use the battery and a pair of finger batteries. You also need a lamp, it must work from 12 volts. You can use a voltmeter instead. Connect the positive from the power supply to the voltage regulator connector.
Accordingly, connect the negative contact to the common plate of the device. Connect a light bulb or voltmeter to the brushes. In this state, there should be voltage between the brushes if 12-13 volts are applied to the input. But if you apply more than 15 volts to the input, there should be no voltage between the brushes. This is a sign that the device is working. And it doesn’t matter at all whether the voltage regulator of the VAZ 2107 generator or another car is being diagnosed. If the control lamp lights up at any voltage value or does not light up at all, then there is a node malfunction.
In the electrical system of a car, the voltage regulator of the Bosch generator (as, indeed, of any other company) plays a very important role. As often as possible, monitor its condition, check for damage and defects. casesfailure of such a device is not uncommon. In this case, at best, the battery will be discharged. And at worst, the supply voltage in the on-board network may increase. This will lead to the failure of most of the consumers of electricity. In addition, the generator itself may fail. And its repair will cost a tidy sum, and given that the battery will fail very quickly, the costs are completely cosmic. It is also worth noting that the Bosch generator voltage regulator relay is one of the leaders in sales. It has high reliability and durability, and the performance is as stable as possible.
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