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Motor transport: the volume and carrying capacity of the truck

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Motor transport: the volume and carrying capacity of the truck
Motor transport: the volume and carrying capacity of the truck

In the field of modern cargo transportation, road transport is one of the most affordable and convenient ways to deliver goods. The term "wagon" comes from the old German name for a large cart for transporting various kinds of things. In the modern sense, it is a covered cargo trailer, semi-trailer or road train for transporting consignments of goods, which are classified by volume and carrying capacity. The load capacity of a truck depends on several characteristics, such as design, number of axles, dimensions.

truck load capacity

Trailers and semi-trailers

Trailer is a non-self-propelled vehicle designed for transportation by a self-propelled vehicle (tractor vehicle). They are divided into three classes: trailers with a number of axles from 1 to 6, semi-trailers without a front axle and trailers-dissolutions for long loads. Based on the purpose, there are several types of trailers and semi-trailers: covered, open, flatbed, platforms, refrigerators, dump trucks, low loaders, etc.

In general terms, the design of all trailer vehicles consists of a frame with a body, suspension, brake system and coupling device.The trailer is attached to the towing device of the tractor vehicle by means of a horizontal lever (drawbar) of various shapes. Semi-trailers are transported by special vehicles equipped with fifth wheel towing mechanisms (saddles). Hence the name of the vehicles - a truck tractor. When a trailer or semi-trailer is connected to a tractor vehicle, the whole structure is called a road train (truck).

truck maximum load capacity

Main types of trucks and trailers

The volume and carrying capacity of the truck depends on the brand and purpose:

  • Semi-trailer. The most common type. Suitable for transporting most types of cargo. Depending on the body structure, it allows loading and unloading from above, from the side and from behind. Useful volume from 60 to 92 m3. The load capacity of the truck is 20 tons, but depending on the tractor, the frame design and the number of axles, it can be 25 tons or more.
  • Refrigerator. Semi-trailer for the transportation of perishable goods that require temperature control. Equipped with an installation capable of maintaining a stable temperature in the range of +250С to -250С. Due to the additional fuel consumption required for the operation of the refrigeration unit, the operation of a refrigerated semi-trailer is 10-25% more expensive compared to other types of trucks. Internal cargo volume from 60 to 92 m3. Load capacity of refrigerated truck 12-22 t.
  • Road train with trailer(s) – frame truck with one or more trailers.The useful volume of such a trailer can be from 60 to 160 m3. Couplers are not suitable for transporting long loads, the advantage is convenient loading and unloading. The maximum load capacity of a coupler truck is up to 25 tons, but for the most common cubature coupled road trains with a volume of 115-120 m3 this value does not exceed 18 tons due to design features.
  • Platforms for heavy and oversized cargo, construction and special equipment. Load capacity of the truck is 40 tons and above. Some types of platforms are capable of supporting a weight of 200 tons.
truck capacity 20 tons

Tilt semi-trailer

Eurotents, eurotrucks - tented semi-trailers, the most practical type of road vehicles for the transport of goods. The main advantage is the universal body structure. If necessary, the awning, frame, sides can be removed, which allows loading / unloading from above, from the side with the help of cranes and special lifting mechanisms. When unawned and with the frame removed, it can be used as an open area. The height of the side is 30-50 cm. The dimensions and shape of the euro truck are standardized for loading pallets (pallets with cargo) in two rows in width. Useful volume, depending on the height of the frame, reaches 92 m3. Cargo transportation by eurotrucks, largely due to its versatility, is the most demanded service of cargo carrier companies. Truck capacity up to 25 t.

truck capacity 40 tons

Isotherms and refrigerators

Designed fortransportation of food products, pharmacological products, other goods that require maintaining a certain temperature regime, thermal insulation from the external environment. Isotherms and refrigerators can be semi-trailers, trailers and single frame cars. The load capacity of a truck depends on the design of the trailer (semi-trailer), namely its own weight, and can reach 25 tons.

Isothermal semi-trailers do not have their own refrigeration unit, but due to thermal insulation they are able to maintain the temperature inside the cargo compartment for a long time. Refrigerated trucks, in addition to thermal insulation, are equipped with their own autonomous cooling system. In fact, refrigerators are mobile refrigerators (freezers). Suitable for transporting deep-frozen products.

volume and load capacity of the truck

Large capacity trucks

The maximum load capacity of a large capacity truck is lower than that of a standard euro truck, but the usable volume is much higher.

This type includes:

  • Tow trains from 110 to 125 m33.
  • MEGA road trains - a semi-trailer with a flat floor and a large height (3.0-3.1 m).
  • Jumbo large volume semi-trailer. Capacity is increased due to the L-shaped floor. Due to this, the entire distance of the cargo compartment after the fifth wheel is located lower on the wheels of reduced diameter. Volume: 96-125 m3, capacity up to 20t.

Restrictions on the size and weight of road trains in the world

The biggestpermissible length and mass of road trains are allowed in the Nordic countries (Finland and Sweden were the first). Permissible parameters are up to 60 tons of curb weight (road train + cargo) and up to 25.25 m in length, while the volume reaches 160 m3. In these countries, road trains are operated, which include a tractor vehicle, a standard semi-trailer and an additional 2-axle trailer.

The maximum permissible curb weight of a 6-axle road train in the CIS countries is 38 tons, in the EU countries - 44 tons. widths are also valid in Europe, but the allowable length is no more than 13.6 m.

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